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I BW!l|liJ i )i i ) i ,MII ' .l i y!i|l ! 




Boy-Stuff is the only Stuff ix the World 
FROM WHICH Men can be Made 



BOYOLOGY 

OR 

BOY ANALYSIS 



H, W. GIBSON 

'Camping fob Boys," ' 
Worship," "Qualities that Win," etc. 



Author of "Camping for Boys," "Services of 



ASSOCIATION PRESS 

New York: 347 Madison Avbnub 
1922 









COPTKIOHT, 1916, BT 

Thb Intkbnational Committee or 
YoxTNG Men's Chbistiajj Associations 



Printed in the United States of America 



To 
MY MOTHER 



584622 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/boyologyorboyanaOOgibsrich 



CONTENTS 
Book I. — The Characteristics of Boyhood 



PAGX 

I. Physical 8 

The thrill of living. Animal vs. man. 
The awakening conscience. Decline and 
acceleration of growth. The teen period. 
Physical health a mental and moral asset. 
Bodily cleanliness. Bathing and swimming. 
Work and sleep. Food values. Normal 
play life. Danger of overtaxation and over- 
strain. Sacred power of reproduction. 

II. Intellectual 29 

The servant of the mind. Thought con- 
trol. Sensori-motor system. The boy's ca- 
pacity of mental development. Disciplining 
imagination. Value of pictures. The power 
of suggestion. Time of decision. Will. 
Habit. The "ego" period. Doubt and 
questioning. Disposition and temperament. 
Cultivation of ideals through music, books, 
pictures, drama, etc. "Slanguage." The 
five senses or "Scouts of the Soul." 

III. Emotional 63 

"Hurt feelings." Four great types of 
temperament. The dominant emotional in- 
stincts — fear, aversion toward the strange, 
anger, afifection, positive and negative self- 
feeling, the sex instinct, inner freedom, the 
instinct of eflBciency, sympathy, reverence, 
the sense of dependence, surprise, and won- 
der. Danger of stifling emotions. The boy 
needs an interpreter of his emotions. 

IV. Social 82 

The hermit or recluse is an abnormal 
being. The gang instinct necessary for the 
proper social education of every boy. Social 
consciousness. Indiscriminate chumship vs. 



vi CONTENTS 



discriminate chumship. Misfits in society. 
A boy's room. The home a social center. 
Socializing value of the family meal. Play 
as a social adjuster. Camping as a socializ- 
ing influence. The recognition of the social 
instinct by the Church. 

V. Moral 100 

The proper field for morals or moral 
sentiment is voluntary human action. 
Struggle between the higher and lower. 
The three classes of control. Aim of moral 
instruction is to teach a boy to know, to 
live, and to do right. Personality. Moral 
law vs. civil law. Syllabus of moral in- 
struction for boys, 12 to 14 years, 14 to 16 
years, 16 to 19 years. The high art of liv- 
ing vs. making a living. 

VI. Religious 117 

The appeal of religion to a healthy, nor- 
mal, happy boy. Religion a motive power 
to give up wrong and to do right. A boy's 
idea of God and duty and religious observ- 
ance. Religious expression. The instinct 
of worship. The stages of the evolution of 
the religion of boyhood. Jesus Christ as 
the world's greatest hero. Conscience. 
Conversion. Loyalty to the Church. The 
function of worship. 

VII. Vocational 137 

"What shall a boy do?" is a problem. 
Harnessing aptitudes. Fitting a boy to a 
calling vs. fitting a calling to a boy. Pre- 
venting misfits. The business of education. 
Parental personal ambition must often be 
sacrificed for the salvation of the boy. 
Dabbling in many things. Value of manual 
training and technical studies. Danger of 
neglecting the cultural. The motive of a 
vocation. The spiritualization of work. 

Table I. Chabactekistics of Childhood 158 

Table II. Charactekistics of Adolescence 162 



CONTENTS vii 

Book II. — General Characteristics 
AND Observations 

CHAPTEB PAQH 

VIII. Taking His Measure 169 

It is the unknowable which has always 
baffled man. The grow time. Two skilled 
builders — nature and nurture. The con- 
tents of a boy. His unpurchasable quality. 
A boy's ideal of a friend. Dangerous 
"Model" boy. "Penrod." The first pair 
of long trousers. His first shave. Exit 
mother, enter father. Well governed cities, 
eflicient schools, happy homes, vitalized 
churches of the future, depend upon the 
boys of today. Will they measure up? 

IX. The Language of the Fence 185 

A piece of chalk in the hands of an evil- 
minded boy. Fence language is but the 
reflection of the thought life of the boy. 
Crimes of manhood begin during boyhood. 
The impure joke. Results of 288 inter- 
views. Parental cowardice. Brain impres- 
sions made through the eye and ear. "Where 
did I come from?" Mother the boy's first 
teacher. Father's part in his sex education. 
Sowing wild oats. Cleaning up the fence. 

X. Parental Delinquency 204 

Ideals of the city, the state, the nation, the 
school, the church, will never rise higher than 
the ideals of the home. Intensity of love of 
home born in man. "Speeding up" of life. 
Parental control. Parental delinquency re- 
sponsible for juvenile delinquency. Results 
of questionnaire sent to boys. Boy barom- 
eters. Homecoming of father. All homeless 
boys do not live in the slums. Boys more 
valuable than carpets. A real home. The 
cure. 

XI. Skedaddling from Sunday School 223 

"Man am I grown." "Skedaddle" means 
to run away, to retire tumultuously. Older 



viii CONTENTS 



PAoa 



boys retiring from Sunday school. Statis- 
tics. Millions growing up in America 
without definite religious instruction and 
needing an anchorage. Too big and too 
old to attend. Not a "kid." Childish 
songs and "opening" exercises. "Bunch" 
don't go. "Hedonists." Appeal of service 
demanding sacrifice. Sabbath irreverence. 
Modern skepticism. Week-day interests. 

XII. Stemming the Tide 236 

There is a tide in the affairs of the Sunday 
school if — . Testimony of a judge. Result 
of questionnaire given to boys. Unprepared- 
ness. Danger of producing "half-baked" 
teachers. Sunday attendance a habit. The 
quality of cheerfulness. "Something to do." 
Class activities. Inter-church organiza- 
tions. Community competition must be 
changed to community cooperation. Sun- 
day school changed into a Bible school. 

XIII. The Church, the Preacher, the Sermon, 

THE Boy 250 

A parable. "Morbus Sabbaticus." A 
diagnosis and the remedy. Churchless boys 
and boyless churches. Seating capacity of 
Protestant churches vs. attendance. Fill- 
ing the pews a problem. Reasons given by 
boys as to why they do not go to church. 
Beatitudes for church goers. Instinct of 
worship in every human being. "How can 
a minister help a boy?" answered by boys. 
The kind of sermons boys would preach to 
boys if they were ministers. Uniting with 
the Church. 

BiBLIOGRAPHT 269 

Index 281 



FOREWORD 

These studies and observations of boy life 
formed the material delivered in courses of 
lectures on "Boyology" or Boy Analysis, before 
the Young Men's Christian Associations of 
Boston, Providence, Lawrence, Cambridge, and 
at Mothers' Meetings, Parent-Teachers' Associa- 
tions, and Women's Clubs, and are now presented 
to that larger audience of parents, teachers, 
and workers among boys, who are interested in 
this intricate piece of human machinery known 
as the boy. 

Twenty-six years of actual contact with many 
thousand boys has convinced the author that 
many of the boy's ways remain as yet uninter- 
preted as well as misinterpreted. He is the 
original sulphite, keeping everybody awake and 
interested when he appears upon the scene. He 
will ever be a new subject for discussion and 
analysis, and in need of friendly interpreters. 
May this little volume introduce him to a host 
of such friends, who will secure for him the 
inahenable rights of boyhood and genuine sym- 
pathy dinging the struggles of youth. 

No attempt has been made to adhere to 



X FOREWORD 

technical or scientific terms, but rather to the 
language of those who may be short in psy- 
chology, physiology, pedagogy, and sociology, 
but who are long in conmion sense and "heart- 
ology." 

Acknowledgment of deepest gratitude is made 
to the host of publishers and authors who so 
generously permitted the use of quoted material. 
*'Out of the mouths of many witnesses, the 
truth shall be estabhshed." A bibhography of 
helpful books and their publishers will be found 
at the end of the book. 

Boston, May, 1916. 



BOOK I 

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF 
BOYHOOD 



CHAPTER I 

Physical Characteristics 

"Oh! The joy of the measured strength! 
To run with the fleet, and leap with the supple. 
And strive with the strong. 

To struggle with friendly foes, and to know at length. 
By measuring strength with strength. 
Where you stand as a man among men. 
To reach with body and soul 
For the wreath of bays, and then 
To rejoice that the best man wins, 
Tho' another be first at the goal. 
Oh! Life is sweet." 

This description of the physical expression of 
boyhood quoted from Justin Stern's "The Song 
of the Boy" is a real experience of every normal 
boy. Where is the boy who does not feel a 
new thrill of living as he competes in the sports 
and the games? Plato, the Greek philosopher, 
said, "Of all beasts, boys are the most unman- 
ageable." To a certain extent this is true, for 
when he starts out to be a boy, he is more like 
a little beast, and many things that make the 
difference between a man and a beast make no 
difference with him. He is, though, a man 
in the making. We are indebted to medical 
3 



4' BOYOLOGY 

science and psychology for a better understand- 
ing as to how we may help this animal, as his 
awakening conscience gets hold of the task of 
controlling him. "The manifold physical hungers 
and thirsts of the animal are all in his senses and 
they keep all the sources of supply at work, day 
and night. Through the wonderful nervous 
system, the nexus between him and his body, 
by which he expresses himself and initiates his 
enterprises, his body is so tied up with the mental 
and moral that its health and purity require 
the same care as do the finest elements and 
essences. His psychical elements are, of course, 
the same, in number, as in grown people. Some 
of them are in action, some dormant, some 
quiescent; some subordinate, while others are in 
control — such as love and hatred, hope and fear, 
sense of justice, appreciation of the beautiful, 
the sublime and the true, and all the powers of 
thought and will. But even his most active 
powers are immatiu*e and it is sometimes difficult 
to distinguish one from another. His power of 
observation is awake before that of decision, 
his feelings control earlier than his reason, his 
reason before his will, and his will before his 
conscience.*'^ 

"When the clock strikes his tweKth year, 
instead of the blind impulses that have been 

» Kirtley, "That Boy of Yovirs," p. 2. 



PHYSICAL 5 

controlling him, his will power awakens and 
assumes the control of his career." According 
to the findings of Professor Tyler, a boy's growth 
in weight between ten and twelve declines to 
a minimum, the thirteenth year begins a marked 
acceleration and lasts about four years, or from 
the thirteenth to the seventeenth year. The 
same holds good in height and chest develop- 
ment. Acceleration begins with the pubertal 
period. He now has an awakening. He is some- 
times shocked by what he discovers, sometimes 
awed, sometimes stricken with fear. If there 
is any one time in his life when he needs a guide, 
a counselor, and a real friend, it is now. Up to 
this time he has been too busy being a boy. 
From three to thirteen he is an interrogation 
mark, a sort of combination of dirt, noise and 
questions, mumps and measles, bumps and 
broken bones. It is claimed that "between 
eight and twelve, he is fighting for and adopt- 
ing his constitution. The rest of the time till 
he is twenty-five, he is evidently working out 
his by-laws." 

In the olden days, twelve years of age was 
considered the "age of accountability," when a 
boy was no longer considered a child, but as 
one who had seriously begun his march man- 
ward. It was at this age that the boy Jesus 
was taken to Jerusalem by his parents. With 



6 BOYOLOGY 

all the inquisitiveness of a boy he found his 
way to the temple, and puzzled the learned 
doctors with his many questions, as many a 
twelve-year-old boy has done to this day. The 
only record we have of Jesus' boyhood is that 
significant statement — "He advanced in wisdom 
and stature, and in favor with God and man." 
After that come the silent years, the years when 
many a boy gets lost in the "storm and stress," 
when his questions are ignored or else silenced 
and unanswered. Though he is but a boy, the 
instincts of a man are already making them- 
selves known, and he seeks information from one 
who has been through the same experiences — a 
man, naturally his father, but alas! father is 
"too busy." How few fathers reaUze that it is 
a serious business to start a soul voyaging toward 
eternity and then to give up hold on the pilot 
wheel when nearing the most dangerous shoals 
in the voyage. A boy's questions are a father's 
opportunity. **To suppress them is to suppress 
him, to direct and answer them is to discipline 
and develop him; to do it in the spirit of co- 
operation is to enter into a sacred partnership 
with him."^ The wise saying of Plato, that 
it was **Better to be imborn than untaught; for 
ignorance is the root of misfortune," surely is 
applicable in modern life as in the days of old. 

2 Kirtley, "That Boy of Yours," p. 26. 



PHYSICAL 7 

No earthly object is so attractive as a well- ^ 
built, growing boy. He is truly "fearfully and 
wonderfully made." The teen period, John 
Keats says, "is the space between the boy and 
the man, in which the soul is in ferment, the 
character undecided, the way of life uncertain.*' 
Shakespeare puts into the mouth of Malvolio 
these words concerning this age: "Not yet old 
enough for a man, nor young enough for a boy; 
as a squash is before 'tis a peas-cod, or a codling 
when 'tis almost an apple. "^ He is growing 
like the proverbial weed, he seems to be all 
legs, he has a painful sensation of awkwardness. 
"Up to the age of about fifteen the legs are 
growing more rapidly than the trunk. After 
fifteen the upper half of the body gains twenty- 
five per cent, the lower hardly half as much."* 
"By fifteen the brain stops growing. The 
large arteries increase one third, the temperature 
rises one degree, the reproduction organs have 
functioned, the voice deepens, the stature grows 
by bounds and the boy needs more sleep and 
food than ever before."^ His heart nearly 
doubles in size; at ten the heart weighs 115 
grams, at seventeen it weighs 230 grams. The 
blood is driven through his veins at double the 



* Beck, "Marching Manward," p. 46. 

* Tyler, "Growth and Edu-ation," p. 6 
6 Forbush, "The Boy Problem," p. 18. 



8 BOYOLOGY 

pressure. "Chest girth is at birth nearly two 
thirds of the height. At nine it is almost exactly 
one half. The ratio diminishes until the thir- 
teenth or fourteenth year in the boy. After 
this it rises continually, and at twenty should 
exceed one half the height.*'® Increased girth 
is always a sign of increased power. Increase 
of vigor and decrease of sickness is marked at 
fourteen and sixteen in the boy, and these years 
are marked by a rapid increase in girth. Do 
you wonder why this "new man'* is a revolu- 
tionist? A new sense of power and self-life calls 
out for expression. 

"I must, I must: a voice is crying to me 
From my soul's depths, and I will follow it." 

He seeks out boys who are undergoing sim- 
ilar experiences and feelings, a group or gang 
is formed for weal or woe, for destructive or 
constructive purposes, for worthwhile deeds or 
damnable doings. He must find some form of 
expression. He is now determining his destiny. 
Now is the critical time of his life, for "Buoy- 
ancy and hopefulness of youth accompany the 
rise in blood pressure. Courage, vitality and 
the temperature of the body sink together dur- 
ing the hours before dawn. The tides of religious 
feeling are at their flood at fourteen and sixteen 

" Tyler, "Growth and Education," p. 67. 



PHYSICAL 9 

years when the girth and lung capacity have 
their accelerated increase."^ To help harness 
this energy so that manhood may be conserved, 
is the duty as well as the privilege of workers 
among boys, for as Herbert says, "No sooner 
is a temple built to God, but the Devil builds 
a chapel hard by." 

"The glory of young men is their strength." 
A wise leader will take advantage of the boy's 
natural desire for physical struggle and prowess. 
Instead of frowning upon his enthusiasm for ** 
things physical, he will direct it along lines of 
wholesome self-knowledge and help him to under- 
stand that the things he so much desires may, 
if not skilfully controlled and directed, prove 
his greatest peril and unmaking. Recreation 
does not always re-create. Any form of dis- 
sipation is a waste of vital material which will 
be needed in some emergency. Physical health 
is a mental and moral asset. When Wendell 
Phillips started off for college, his mother gave 
him this advice, "My son, keep your linen 
clean, read your Bible every day, and let plenty 
of fresh air into your room." "Conservation of ^ 
bodily strength through cleanliness and fresh 
air, is the first thing needed."^ Therefore a 



7 Tyler, "Growth and Education," p. 201. 

8 Kirtley, "That Boy of Yours," p. 10. 



10 BOYOLOGY 

boy should be taught the value of keeping his 
body clean, that it is important for his mental 
and moral, as well as physical good, to keep 
the nasal passages open, to keep his finger nails 
and toe nails trimmed and clean, and to look 
after his eyes and ears and especially his throat. 
The boy should understand that he has about 
1,700 square inches of skin, each square inch 
containing about 3,500 sweating tubes, or res- 
pirating pores, which must not become clogged 
and must be given a chance to breathe. It is 
difficult to make a young boy understand that 
"cleanliness is next to godliness," for too often 
he desires to be neither clean or godly. The 
appeal of a strong, healthy, athletic body grips 
him quicker than the appeal of moral well being. 
The value of bathing should be explained to him 
in such a tactful manner as to create within 
him a "hankering'* for a bath. To bathe daily 
with warm water to keep clean, and to follow 
with a quick cold bath and then a vigorous 
rub-down will not only increase vitality but do 
much to keep clean his thought life. "Cold 
bathing sends the blood inward partly by the 
cold which contracts the capillaries of the skin 
and tissue immediately underlying it, and partly 
by the pressure of the water over all the dermal 
surface, quickens the activity of kidneys, lungs, 
and digestive apparatus, and the reactive glow 



PHYSICAL 11 

is the best possible tonic for dermal circulation. 
It is the best of all gymnastics for the involun- 
tary muscles and for the heart and blood vessels. 
This and the removal of the products of ex- 
cretion preserve all the important dermal func- 
tions which are so easily and so often impaired 
by our modern life, lessen the liability to skin 
diseases, and promote freshness of complexion. "• 
Swimming is the amusement or sport 'par 
excellence among boys. This information was 
secured by testing 322 boys in many cities and 
towns, through the questionnaire method. They 
were requested to check off on a card provided 
them, the amusements named which they liked 
best and in order of preference. The figures in 
front of each line of the chart indicate first, 
second, and third choice and the figures at the 
end of each line give the number of boys voting 
for that particular amusement. Several tests 
and studies made with these same boys will 
appear in other chapters of this volume, as they 
represent a type of boy found in every com- 
munity. 

Swimming 1 B9 

2 44 

3 48 

Camping 1 57 

2 60 

^ 8 84 

•HaU, "Youth," p. 105. 



U BOYOLOGY 

Baseball 1 44 

2 82 

8 84 

Music 1 87 

2 29 

3 80 

Football 1 28 

8 28 

Basketball 1 28 

« 31 

8 26 

Track Athletics 1 26 

e 20 

8 18 

Gymnasium 1 19 

2 23 

8 22 

Hiking 1 13 

« 15 

8 32 

Boating 1 11 

2 21 

8 25 

Dancing 1 11 

2 12 

8 17 

Parties 1 9 

2 17 

8 13 

Theaters 1 8 

2 11 

8 12 



PHYSICAL 13 

Movies 1 1 

2 10 

3 10 

Ages 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 over 20 

4 15 68 99 66 34 19 10 7 

"Swimming strengthens the lungs, because it 
causes deep breathing; it strengthens the nerv- 
ous system, because it induces natural sleep; 
it strengthens the spine and enlarges the chest, 
because it causes the head to be thrown back 
and the chest out; it strengthens and sets right 
the pelvic organs, because the body is in motion 
on the horizontal plane. By the wormhke mo- 
tion of the trunk characteristic of swimming, 
all the internal viscera are assisted in their nor- 
mal functions; hence bowel, liver, and kidney 
troubles disappear, and the danger from appendi- 
citis is greatly lessened."^^ 

Sleep, that great mystery, is most important 
in the growth of a boy, yet how rebellious he is 
when it comes to bed time. To sit up late is 
to him a great privilege, and indulgent parents 
many times are responsible for the fatigue and 
nervous restlessness due to irregularity of sleep. 
Without sleep the brain would soon wear out. 
Wear and waste always go hand in hand with 
activity. Sleep helps to renew and rebuild. 

10 Corsan, "At Home in the Water," p. 12. 



14 BOYOLOGY 

Warner" thinks the hours of work and sleep 
should be as follows: 



Age 


Hours per week 


Hours per night 




of work 


of sleep 


Between 8- 9 


15 


12 


9-10 


20 


11^ 


10-11 


25 


11 


11-12 


30 


lOK 


12-14 


35 


10 


14-15 


40 


93^ 


15-17 


45 


9 


17-19 


50 


8H 



We grow mostly during sleep, for then the 
products of nutrition, which during the day 
are used in replacing the constant waste of the 
system, are employed in building new tissue. 
A boy eats and sleeps far more in proportion 
than the adult; and this surplus of nutrition is 
expended in building up, or growing. 

There is a tendency to mouth breathing 
among boys which should be corrected early. 
'*The boy who sleeps with his mouth open not 
only has disturbed sleep but disturbs other 
sleepers, and lets the enemy in that dries up 
the saliva of the mouth, injures the teeth, dis- 
eases the throat and lungs, irritates the nerves, 
and racks the brain."^ An Indian warrior sleeps 
and hunts and smiles with his mouth shut, and 



" Hall, "Adolescence," Vol. I, p. 263. 

M Green, "Thoughts for the People," p. 239. 



PHYSICAL 15 

with seeming reluctance opens it even to eat 
or to speak. An Indian child is not allowed / 
to sleep with its mouth open, from the very first 
sleep of its existence; the consequence of which 
is, that, while the teeth are forming, they take 
their relative natural position, and form that 
healthful and pleasing regularity which has se- 
cured to the American Indians, as a race, the 
most beautiful mouths in the world. The 
nostrils were made to breathe through, and 
their delicate and fibrous lining is necessary 
to remove dust and other foreign substances, 
to purify and warm the air in its passage, and 
to stand guard over the lungs, especially during 
the hours of repose. 

Note also that Indian mothers do not swathe ^ 
their children in tight-fitting and uncomfortable 
garments. They do not put on growing feet, 
tight-fitting, closely laced shoes, or cover their 
heads with unventilated hats. The body is given 
every encouragement to grow in a natural 
manner. 

A growing boy, when asked if he could name 
the three graces, replied: "Yes, breakfast, dinner, 
and supper." Someone has described the boy 
as "an appetite with the skin pulled over it.'* 
The boy very often sums up life in two words 
of three letters each— "F-U-N" and "E-A-T." 
Perhaps after all he has the real philosophy of 



16 BOYOLOGY 

material existence, for when the real fun of 
living begins to wane and our digestive apparatus 
refuses to function properly, then we become of 
"all men most miserable." 

"Growth is a very expensive process, and de- 
mands the combustion of a large amount of 
nutriment, more than is consumed by active 
muscular exercise. . . . The boy needs a liberal 
supply of food and oxygen during the periods 
of rapid growth or change. Kind and quality 
also demand attention. It must be suited to 
the needs of the epoch."^^ Atwater tells us that 
the boy of fifteen or sixteen requires ninety j>er 
cent the food ration of the adult man, engaged 
in muscular work. A boy at twelve requires 
seventy per cent. 

Scientists in making an analysis of the human 
body find that it is composed of lime, carbon, 
hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, and other 
ingredients, and they all go into the body as 
food, except what comes in as air, which is 
mainly oxygen. It is necessary that they be in 
the right proportion. "If he gets too much lime 
he runs to bones; or oxygen, he becomes flighty 
and fighty; or too much phosphorus into a will 
o' the wisp." Most of our diseases are due 
in the last analysis to malnutrition or to lack of 
assimilative power. 

" Tyler, "Growth and Education," p. 86. 



PHYSICAL 17 

Food has much to do with the boy's mind 
and character. Chemical changes in the body, 
due to food, are paralleled by changes in his 
emotions. The conversion of meat into man, of 
food into feeling, is an interesting process worth 
studying. "Food becomes blood and blood builds 
bones and muscles and nerves and brain tissues 
and, from that physical basis, we get power to 
think and feel and will and do." "The boy 
has a right, then, to have good food and enough of 
it and to have the wise oversight of those who 
are over him. The values of the food may be 
lost by too rapid eating. Haste and nervousness 
lead to the galloping style of eating. The boy 
may not Fletcherise, but he may be taught to 
put himself into his eating, which is next in im- 
portance to putting the eatables into himself. 
He should chew as long as he can teach himself 
to enjoy that particular mouthful. Eating is 
an art which he must be taught, as he is taught 
the art of painting or bookkeeping or printing 
or engineering."^* 

"A sound mind in a sound body" should be 
forever the appeal as well as the ideal. Dr. 
Hall says "Modern psychology sees in muscles, 
organs of expression for all efferent processes. . . . 
Muscle culture develops brain centers as nothing 
else yet demonstrably does. Muscles are the 

1* Kirtley, "That Boy of Yours," p. 21. 



18 BOYOLOGY 

vehicles of habituation, imitation, obedience, char- 
acter, and even of manners and customs. . . . 
Skill, endurance, and perseverance may almost 
be called muscular virtues; and fatigue, caprice, 
languor, restlessness, lack of control and poise, 
muscular faidts."*^ 

"Not only is all muscle culture at the same 
time brain-building, but a bookworm with soft 
hands, tender feet, and tough rump from much 
sitting, or an senemic boy prodigy, *in the morn- 
ing hectic, in the evening electric,' is a monster. 
Play at its best is a school of ethics. It gives not 
only strength but courage and confidence, tends 
to simplify life and habits, gives energy, deci- 
sion, and promptness to the will, brings conso- 
lation and i>eace of mind in evil days, is a re- 
source in trouble and brings out individuality.*'^* 

The normal play life of the boy is a challenge 
to the Church. Football, baseball, soccer, and 
other similar games may become schools of 
mental and moral training. GuHck holds that 
the reason why only some seven per cent of 
the young men of the country are in the churches, 
while most of the members and workers are 
women, is that the qualities demanded are the 
feminine ones of love, rest, prayer, trust, desire 
for fortitude to endure, a sense of atonement — 



16 HaU. "Youth," p. 8. 
w HaU, "Youth," p. 76. 



PHYSICAL Id 

traits not involving ideals that must stir young 
men. The Church is just beginning to appeal 
to the more virile qualities, as evidenced in the 
Sunday School Athletic and Baseball Leagues. 

Avoid unwise competition, which may spur ^ 
the boy to overtaxation, and overstrain of heart. 
"Safety first*' is superseding "take chances" and 
the risk of sacrificing any boy for the sake of 
the team, or of advertising himself and the 
organization which he represents, must be elim- 
inated from athletics. "To put a young boy 
who is big and strong for his age, with older 
boys, who may be no larger, or may be even 
smaller, but who are much more strongly *knit' 
and thus able to bear physical strain without 
harm, may disable the younger boy for life. 
We must be aware of the fact that a boy who 
has grown very large and strong for his age, 
generally has a heart a little small in proportion 
to his size — a heart which should be given oppor- 
tunity for normal growth, and which should 
not be called upon for the great exertion needed 
in football or in some of the more wearing track 
sports. In this way many boys are injured."^^ 
No growing boy should be permitted to play 
on a football team or engage in track sports 
without first undergoing a thorough examination 

^ Taylor, "The Physioal Examination and Training of Children/I 
p. 58. 



20 BOYOLOGY 

by a reputable physician. The goal of athletics 
and sports should be: safe, sane, all-round physi- 
cal development and fitness, with enough of the 
competitive to develop that team work so neces- 
sary in later life, courage, self-control, loyalty, 
obedience, and, best of all, ability to play an 
uphill or losing game, and to smile in the face of 
discouragement or defeat. 

Teach a boy the seriousness as well as the 
foolishness of waste. When one takes in liquor 
he wastes that much money, besides the injury 
to his body or mind. The very meaning of the 
word alcohol is interesting. It is derived from 
the Arabic "al-kahol," which means "something 
very subtle." Alcohol paralyzes the white blood 
corpuscles so that they cannot attack disease. 
Professor RosenufF in his investigations discovered 
"that one half of the drunkards get the habit 
before 21 years of age, and one third before 16 
years of age, that about 2,000 men die a day who 
are drunkards, and that one out of every four 
admitted to insane asylums were brought there 
by alcohol." Have the boy read several times 
this Confession: 

"I am the greatest criminal in history. 
I have killed more men than have fallen in all the wars 

of the world. 
I have turned men into brutes. 
I have made millions of homes unhappy. 



PHYSICAL 21 

I have transformed many ambitious youths into hope- 
less parasites. 

I make smooth the downward path for countless millions. 

I destroy the weak and weaken the strong. 

I make the wise man a fool and trample the fool into 
his folly. 

I ensnare the innocent. 

The abandoned wife knows me, the hungry children 
know me. 

The parents whose child has bowed their gray heads in 
sorrow know me. 

I have ruined millions and shall try to ruin millions more. 

— I am Alcohol." 

Longfellow well says: "He that drinks wine, 
thinks wine, he that drinks beer, thinks beer.'* 
Teach the boy that to turn down his glass at 
a dinner or banquet is not a sacrifice, but an 
evidence of self-mastery, for it is the first glass 
and not the last glass that makes the drunkard. 
A wine glass is never right side up until it is 
upside down. 

Abstinence has a distinct economic value to a 
community, as is evidenced in the following 
statement: 

Petrograd, Via London, Sept. 30, 1914—10 p. m.— 
Minister of Finance Bark to-day received an order that 
the prohibition of the sale of vodka shall be continued 
indefinitely after the end of the war. This order is based 
principally on the tremendously improved condition of the 
country since the Emperor issued the edict prohibiting 
traffic in this liquor. 



22 BOYOLOGY 

Visitors arriving from Southern Russia say there is 
such a change in that region that the country is hardly 
recognizable. Peasants, who before the war had fallen 
into hopeless indolence and depravity, already have 
emerged into self-respecting citizens. The eflFect on 
character is already visible in neatly brushed clothes, 
instead of the former dilapidated and slovenly attire. 
Huts which were formerly dilapidated and allowed to 
go without repairs are now kept in first-class condition. 

The towns have become more orderly and the peasants 
indulge in wholesome amusements. These people now 
save 55 per cent of their earnings, which formerly was 
spent for drink, and they have increased their earning 
capacity through sobriety. This extra money is now 
devoted to the necessities and comforts of life. This 
startling regeneration of the peasantry is, in the opinion 
of the Russian authorities, likely to have an important 
effect on the social and economic conditions of all Russia. 
A change in the large cities also is noticeable. Liquor 
still is sold in first-class cafes, but these are virtually 
empty. The Nevsky Prospect, once famous for its gay 
midnight life, is now quiet, without a sign of revelry. 

The Savings Bank reports of Russia show savings in- 
creased 5,000 per cent (net) in the eight months follow- 
ing the closing of the drink shops. 

The United States Government reports on the 
consumption of liquor show a decided decrease. 
The consumption of liquor in 1913 was 143,220,- 
056 gallons, in 1914 was 139,138,501 gallons, in 
1915 was 125,155,178 gallons, a net decrease of 
18 million gallons, in two years. 

One hundred and eight distilleries went out of 



PHYSICAL 2S 

business in 1915 and forty-one breweries ceased 
to brew. The American Bankers Association 
attribute this decrease to the wave of thrift which 
seems to be sweeping over the United States. 

Dr. Dennis of Cornell Medical School says: 
"The tendency to beer drinking is greatly strength- 
ened by cigaret smoking because this habit 
becomes almost constant, causing a dryness of 
the throat and fauces, and hence irritating the 
throat." "The cigaret habit with its attendant 
evils, the saloon and vice," says Mr. E. W. 
Baines in an article on "The Hopeless Handi- 
cap,"^® "is sapping the mental and moral stamina 
of American young men, gnawing at the very 
vitals of their physical well-being. Teachers 
throughout the country recognize in the cigaret 
the school's deadliest foe, and confess without 
reservation that they find it practically impos- 
sible to educate a cigaret-smoking boy." He 
cites from the records of Harvard University 
the fact that "for fifty years not one tobacco 
user has stood at the head of his class, although 
five out of six (83 per cent) Harvard students 
use the weed. A city magistrate said recently, 
*Out of 300 boys brought before me charged with 
various crimes 295 were cigaret-smokers.' Ac- 
cording to the findings of Dr. Shaw, 80 diseases 



18 The Literary Digest, August 8, 1914. 



U BOYOLOGY 

are traceable to tobacco, and 25,000 die annually 
from it.'* 

It is an economic waste, as declared by Dr. 
D. H. Kress, an eminent physician, when he cal- 
culated that the amount spent in the United 
States alone for tobacco, annually, would enable 
him to provide thirty thousand families each 
with the necessities of life. In addition he says: 
"I could grant an allowance of $5,000 to each of 
ten thousand other families. To each of ten 
thousand others I could give $10,000. To each 
of one thousand other heads of families, I could 
make a Christmas present of $50,000. To each 
of another thousand I could give $100,000; and, 
besides, to each of five hundred of my best 
friends I could make an annual allowance of 
$1,000,000. After doing all this, I would still 
have left each year $200,000,000 to bestow on 
charitable institutions, and at least $10,000,000 
to keep the woK from the door." 

Give the boy these facts, adding the advice 
of Robert Burdette: "My son, as long as thou 
hast in thy skull the sense of a jay bird, break 
away from the cigaret, for lo, it causeth thy 
breath to stink like a glue factory; it rendereth 
thy mind less intelligent than that of a cigar 
store dummy; yea, thou art a cipher with the 
rim knocked off." 

In twenty-seven years of personal friendship 



PHYSICAL 25 

with many thousand boys, the author has yet 
to meet the boy who did not have a moral let- 
down in his life the moment he began using 
tobacco. These are the two great foes of youth, 
tobacco and alcohol — eliminate these, and you 
eliminate myriads of other foes. 

The most serious problem is to guide this ^ 
coming man through the period when mind 
begins to have control over body, for "as a boy 
thinketh so is he.*' "About eight hundred 
thousand boys come to maturity every year. 
Every one is born a male animal, gifted by the 
Author of Life with the germ of the sacred 
power of begetting children born in His image. 
The call to this power speaks in the boy so 
early that it startles him. It finds him fatally 
ignorant of its meaning. He turns this way 
and that for guidance and finds anything but 
satisfaction in the half-amused, half-scandalized 
confusion of parents over his ingenuous queries. 
His training consists of a stuffing process that " 
results too often in an artificial rather than a 
natural boy.''^^ 

It is the unnatural, hot-house forcing that is ^ 
responsible for the highly nervous and sexually 
passionate adolescents, and there is a great 
lesson as well as a gleam of humor in these verses 
of Nixon Waterman: 

w Wilson, "The Education of the Young in Sex Hygiene," p. 32. 



26 BOYOLOGY 

"Hurry the baby as fast as you can. 
Hurry him, worry him, make him a man, 
OfiP with his baby clothes, get him in pants. 
Feed him on brain foods and make him advance. 
Hustle him, soon as he's able to walk. 
Into a grammar school; cram him with talk. 
Fill his poor head full of figures and facts. 
Keep on a-jamming them in till it cracks. 

**Once boys grew up at a rational rate; 
Now we develop a man while you wait. 
Rush him through college, compel him to grab 
Of every known subject a dip and a dab. 
Get him in business, and after the cash. 
All by the time he can grow a mustache; 
Let him forget he was ever a boy. 
Make gold his god and its jingle his joy; 
Keep him a-hustling and clear out of breath 
Until he wins — nervous prostration and death." 

In how few homes is sex instruction given by 
fathers and mothers. The boy has the right to 
be taught God's laws of reproduction and life 
and those engaged in the business of human 
culture, whether father or god-father, cannot 
brush aside lightly this great responsibility. For 
a parent not to know the boy's physical charac- 
teristics and possibilities and powers is a kind 
of negligence bordering on the criminal. Parents 
should understand that building a clean, whole- 
some character is much greater than erecting a 
house of stone and mortar. The rephes from 169 
churches received by the Commission appointed 



PHYSICAL «7 

by the International Sunday School Association 
to study Adolescence, to the questions regarding 
the physical life of the adolescent,^" reveal a start- 
ling lack of interest and knowledge concerning the 
religion of the body and its relationship to the reli- 
gion of the soul, and the twelve recommendations 
made by the Commission should be considered 
seriously by every church worker among boys. 
Other organizations have for years recognized 
this relationship, which in part is responsible 
for their success in winning and holding boys. 

"The Health Creed" distributed by the Massa- 
chusetts State Board of Health among boys and 
girls is proving a most effective method of win- 
ning boys to self-preservation through the sane 
observance of the laws of good health. The 
creed is as follows: 

"My body is the temple of my soul, therefore, 
"I will keep my body clean within and without," 
"I will breathe pure air and I will live in the sun- 
light," 
"I will do no act that might endanger the health of 

others," 
"I will try to learn and practice the rule of healthy 

living," 
**I will work and rest and play at the right time and in 
the right way, so that my mind will be strong and 
my body healthy, and so that I will lead a useful 
life and be an honor to my parents, to my friends 
and to my country." 



«> Alexander, "The Sunday School and the Teena," p. 216. 



«8 BOYOLOGY 

Through well conducted camps, exhilarating 
hikes, interesting scout work, exciting games, 
attractive lectures on health and hygiene, boys 
have been led to reverence for their bodies and 
to definite Christian Hving and service. Build- 
ing boys is better than mending men. The com- 
pensation for such work is clearly set forth in 
the following verse: 

"Who builds in Boys builds lastingly in Truth, 
And 'vanished hands' are multiplied in power. 
And sounds of living voices, hour by hour. 
Speak forth his message with the lips of Youth. 

Here, in the Home of Hope, whose doors are Love, 
To shape young souls in images of right. 
To train frail twigs straight upward toward the Light; 

Such work as this God measures from above! 

And faring forth, triumphant, with the dawn. 
Each fresh young soul a missioner for weal. 
Forward they carry, as a shield, the seal. 

Of his example — so his work goes on. 

Granite may crumble, wind and wave destroy. 
Urn, shaft or word may perish or decay; 
But this shall last forever and a day — 

His living, loving monument — a Boy!" 



CHAPTER II 

Intellectual Chaeacteristics 

"Mind is the master power that molds and makes 
And man is mind, and evermore he takes 
The tool of Thought, and shaping what he wills. 
Brings forth a thousand joys, a thousand ills — 
He thinks in secret, and it comes to pass 
Environment is but his looking glass." 

— Benton. 

The body is the servant of the mind. It 
obeys the operations of the mind, whether the 
thought be deliberately chosen or automatically 
expressed. At the bidding of unlawful thought 
the body sinks rapidly into disease and decay; 
at the command of glad and beautiful thoughts 
it becomes clothed with youthfulness and beauty; 
therefore a "sound mind in a sound body" is 
something more than a maxim, it is a reality. 
"'Tis the mind that makes the body rich." 
What is mind.-^ Mind is the feeling, thinking, 
willing part of man. More exactly, the mind 
is that which manifests itself in our processes 
of knowing, of feeling, and of willing. What 
mind is in itself we do not know. We know only 
what it does. 

29 



30 BOYOLOGY 

The body is the means of communication be- 
tween the mind and the outside world. The 
part of the body most intimately connected 
with the mind is the brain, and it is interesting 
to note here that, according to the study made 
by Kirkpatrick, "The weight of the brain of boys 
at birth is 12.29 per cent of that of the body, 
while at twenty -five years it is only 2.16 per 
cent of the weight of the body."^ It is outgrown 
by other organs. This brain mass bom with 
the boy betokens his capacity for mental de- 
velopment and it is this which to so large an 
extent presents him to us for the making. 

''The organs of behavior, if one may use the 
expression, are nerves and muscles. Acting con- 
jointly they form the nervo-muscular, or as it is 
now more often called, the 'sensori-motor* sys- 
tem.'*^ The brain is the chief part of the nervous 
system. A brief presentation of the nervous 
system will help us imderstand the workings of 
the boy's mind, for we are rapidly retreating 
from the old mistaken idea that "children's heads 
are hollow," and the following verse taken from 
the London Post is a bit of irony in favor of the 
more progressive educational movement, which 
believes in natural and visualized methods in- 



1 Erkpatrick, "Fundamentals of Child Study," p. 19. 
* Mark, "Unfolding of Personality," p. 48. 



INTELLECTUAL SI 

stead of the ready made and automatic methods 
so much in vogue. 

"Ram it in, jam it in, 

Children's heads are hollow; 
Slam it in, cram it in. 

Still there's more to follow. 

Hygiene and history- 
Asiatic mystery. 
Algebra, histology. 
Botany, geometry, 
Latin, etymology, 
Greek and trigonometry. 
Ram it in and cram it in 
Children's heads are hollow. 

Scold it in, mould it in. 

All that they can swallow; 
Fold it in, hold it in. 

Still there's more to follow. 

Faces pasty, pinched and pale 
Tell the plaintive, piteous tale; 
Tell of hours robbed from sleep. 
Robbed from meals for studies deep; 
All who 'twixt these millstones go 
Tell the selfsame tale of woe; 
How the teacher crammed it in. 
Rammed it in, jammed it in. 
Crunched it in, clubbed it in. 
Pumped it in, stumped it in. 
Rapped it in, slapped it in. 

When their heads were hollow.'* 



32 BOYOLOGY 

Someone has said, "You can lead a horse to 
water, but you cannot make him drink; you 
can drive a boy to school, but you cannot make 
him think." All real education consists in the 
use of facts rather than their accumulation, for 

**The mind is not a garner to be filled. 
But a garden to be tilled." 

The nervous system consists of two parts: the 
cerebro-spinal system and the sympathetic sys- 
tem. The nervous tissue of the cerebro-spinal 
system is of two kinds: white matter, consisting 
of nerve fibers, and grey matter, consisting of 
nerve fibers and nerve cells. The brain is en- 
closed in the cranium or skull. It consists of 
several parts, the chief of which are the cerebrum, 
or the seat of sensation, reasoning, emotion, and 
volition (these powers seem to reside in the 
grey matter) ; the cerebellum, the regulator or co- 
ordinator of muscular movement, and really the 
servant of the cerebrum; and the medulla ob- 
longata, or prolongation of the spinal cord, serv- 
ing as a conductor between the spinal cord and 
the cerebellum and cerebrum. 

Maturity, or more properly great increase of 
eflBciency, is marked by the appearance of the 
medullary sheath or spinal marrow, surrounding 
the nerve fibers in the centers. "At birth, there 
is little medullation in the cerebrum, or upper 



INTELLECTUAL 33 

part of the cranium. Here the sensory centers 
mature first; first those of smell, then of sight, 
last of all, those of hearing. The centers in the 
cortex which preside over voluntary motion 
seem to mature later. The child is at first sen- 
sory and receptive; later an active, motor, pur- 
posing, and voluntary being, "^ then these two 
stages become united. During the period of 
growth and of early development every organ 
is plastic and easily modified. Then these mod- 
ifications set and become permanent. The brain 
forms no exception to the rule. There is a time 
when it is easy to learn and acquire. If we de- 
lay too long, we learn and acquire with diflBculty. 
"It is hard to teach an old dog new tricks," and 
"as the twig is bent the tree's inclined," are old 
sayings, in perfect accord with deductions of 
science. The sympathetic system is situated on 
each side of the backbone or vertebral column. 
Branches from this system ramify to the heart, 
stomach, etc., and do much to control these 
organs. The sympathetic system is concerned 
more closely with the body than with our mental 
life. The nervous system has thus been explained 
in detail in order that the wonderful unfolding 
of the boy's personality may be better understood. 
"The mind of a young boy is apparently a 
picture gallery of experiences, observations, and 

* Tyler, "Growth and Education," p. 72. 



84 BOYOLOGY 

products of the imagination. When very young 
he wishes to handle everything. His eyes and 
ears are wide open. His usual question is, 'What 
is it?' There is much in a name to him. We 
give him things to see what he will do with them. 
He is really experimenting with himself and the 
world, which is wonderfully fresh and fascinating 
to him. These characteristics of the sensory 
I>eriods last from infancy to perhaps the eighth 
year. The second period, from seven to thir- 
teen, is one of coordination of motion and emo- 
tion. The sense organs are still improving, but 
this is chiefly a motor epoch, when his interest 
is in plays calling forth the use of the muscles 
of the legs and arms."* Aroimd thirteen is the 
age when boys begin to examine their evidence 
critically, and when the reasoning power of the 
mind appears as a dominant factor in the mental 
life of the boy. 

Imagination is a marked characteristic in the 
mental development of a boy. Before thirteen 
years of age, to him toys are symbols; a chair 
becomes a horse, a car, or a boat; placed across 
the corner of the room it forms a house, a cave, 
or a wide field. As he grows older, imagination 
becomes constructive. In the museum he sees 
a knight's suit of armor; he calls up images of 
man and horse, places the man, as it were, in- 

* Tyler, "Growth and Education," p. 76. 



INTELLECTUAL 35 

side the armor and spurs the horse, and begins 
to unagme a knight ready for the tournament. 
Here is activity involved in imagination, com- 
bined with parts or whole of memory images, 
made through reading or by looking at pictures. 
His power of imagination plays an imp)ortant 
part in mind development. Clear images can be 
built up upon a sensory basis only. "Seeing 
things at night" is tame compared with the 
way a normal boy sees things with his eyes wide 
open, things that are not — day dreaming, some 
call it. It is not wrong either, for Alden says 
"genius is creative imagination and ingenuity is 
its power of insight." The Wrights, Curtiss, 
Ferris, Edison are the product of imagination. 

"Imagination gives wings to his hope, feet 
to his reason, force to his decision and vivid- 
ness to his memory. It furnishes him invisible 
armor and victorious arms for his battle against 
the false and vicious and vulgar; for he can 
picture to himseK the ideal, true, and virtuous 
•and good and then make them real. It enables 
him to secure control of himself at the time 
when he is becoming acquainted with his own 
volatile and mysterious powers, for he can be 
made to see the vast benefit to come from such 
self-control. "5 

Imagination is the means of bringing in sug- 

» Kirtley, "That Boy of Yovirs," p. 39. 



S6 BOYOLOGY 

gestions from the outside and taking them out 
again into the life. We cannot estimate the 
power of suggestion. It is putting the idea into 
the mind of another which becomes an action. 
This servant of the mind, is also capable of 
playing havoc with a boy's life. A speaker, 
when talking to a Sunday school class about 
the fixedness of habits, said that if they would 
write their names in the cement sidewalk while 
it was soft, the writing would last as long as 
the walks. Of coiu*se the boys did the writing 
without any loss of time. 

Someone has said, "the boundary line between 
virtue and vice is situated in the imagination." 
If the imagination is not disciplined, its very 
power becomes the boy's weakness. Much of 
the injury to boyhood is to be traced to an out- 
raged imagination. In adolescence the boy longs 
for comradeship which he can "idealize," and 
therefore he affords his parents and men a rare 
chance to help him transform ideas and ideals 
into things, and change the golden dreams of 
boyhood into the worthy deeds of manhood. 

Too much stress cannot be placed upon the 
educational value of pictures, such as Watt's 
"Sir Galahad" with its impelling message, "My 
strength is as the strength of ten because my heart 
is pure"; Hofmann's "The Boy Jesus," with 
purity of life gleaming from the eyes and every 



INTELLECTUAL 37 

line of the face; and "Washington in Prayer at 
Valley Forge,'* a reproduction of the bronze 
tablet on the Sub-Treasury in Wall Street, New 
York, which made such an impression on a Boy 
Scout as he stood looking at it, that a writer 
has immortalized the scene in the following verses : 

"Wall Street rang and echoed with its traflSc; 
A brown Boy Scout stood in his khaki there 
Before the bronze which showed his Nation's father 
Kneeling in anguish to his God in prayer. 

The trim boy, hustled by the rushing thousands. 
His bright eyes still kept fastened on That Face; 

His lips, soft parted, like a sweet flower trembled; 
He seemed exalted in his boyish grace. 

He turned, his tanned cheek flushed with noble fervor. 
While his brave eye with resolution flamed; 

If Washington could kneel in supplication. 

Then why should I, a mere boy, feel ashamed! 

Whenever dangers in my life surround me, 
I'll ever think of that bronze gleaming there! 

Great Washington, who led our mighty Nation, 
Shall be the leader of one boy in prayer." 

Roark in his "Psychology in Education" says: 
"Parents and teachers should set before boys 
and girls the best characters in literature, his- 
tory, and biography; not in any goody-goody 
way, not with too much stress upon the de- 
sirabihty of imitating them, but in a frank, 
cordial, rational way. . . . What the imagination 



88 BOYOLOGY 

habitually contemplates that will it form into 
the ideals in whose image we make ourselves. *'• 

It was a clever, actively thinking, handsome 
boy of sixteen who said, "I sometimes think, I 
often think, that perhaps it would be a good 
idea for a fellow to be buried when he was fif- 
teen and not dug up again until after he was 
twenty. It's so hard for a boy to know just 
exactly what is best to do." He had to come 
to the point where he must begin to decide. 
He is now battling his way through a chaos of 
developments. "Before him stretch all the long 
years of life, years of thought, of work, of attain- 
ment, or years of blighted hope, of struggle, and 
failure, and useless despair. Those years may 
hold so much! Behind him lie his poor young 
sixteen birthdays, more than half of them the 
birthdays of a child, and his experience is all 
that hes between them."' He must now decide. 
Here is where most of life's tragedies are enacted. 
Blessed is that parent or friend who can so in- 
terpret the mind of the boy that he can sug- 
gest a "way out." 

Modern economic conditions have weakened 
the power of the will. Luxury, over-heated 
houses, rapid transportation, have produced a 
physical laziness which is a disease of the will. 



» Roark, "Psychology in Education," p. 216. 
7 Bok, "Before He is Twenty," p. 35. 



INTELLECTUAL 39 

In the olden days "will culture" was acquired 
through authoritative direction of the parents. 
Respect for authority must be a part of the 
boy's mental development. "To obey is liberty." 
Directing his will is better than breaking his 
will. Outwardly the will manifests itself in 
actions and deeds; inwardly it controls the 
thoughts. There is nothing that will help de- 
velop and strengthen the will hke responsibility 
for given tasks or work. The boy's love of 
activity, coupled with the joy of achievement, 
may be the means of his mastering the secrets 
of a strong will and prepare him to face his fu- 
ture with increasing strength. Moral deteriora- 
tion results from a weak will, which may be 
explained partly by defective imagination and 
partly by weakness of motive. Get the boy to 
see that work brings pleasure, skill, approbation, 
promotion, and the consciousness of increased 
power. 

There are about 13,000,000 young men in the 
United States of the teen age. Were they to 
march ten abreast, twelve feet apart, they would 
form a column 2,800 miles long, almost the dis- 
tance from New York to San Francisco. They 
could start with the raw material and build the 
Brooklyn Bridge in three hours. They could 
build the Chinese Wall in five days. They 
could build a railroad from New York to San 



40 BOYOLOGY 

Francisco between the rising and setting of the 
sun. The problem of saving them from habits 
that wreck, from idleness, from atrophying lux- 
ury, from misdirected energy, and helping them 
to form habits that build character and that 
make for efficiency and good citizenship, is 
enormous. 

Nearly all habits, mental and personal, are 
formed before twenty years of age. "All authors 
agree that habit has a physiological basis; that 
the sensation which the nerve carries to the 
brain for the first time cuts a path, speaking 
figuratively, through the brain, and that the 
same sensation, if repeated, and not prevented 
from doing so, will follow the same path. When 
this has been done so many times as to be re- 
peated unconsciously, habit has been formed."* 
The plasticity of the living matter of our nervous 
system, in short, is the reason why we do a 
thing with difficulty the first time, but soon do 
it more and more easily, and finally, with sufficient 
practice do it semi-mechanically, or with hardly 
any consciousness at all — for example, the wind- 
ing of one's watch, dressing and undressing, etc. 
It is unfortunate that the word habit has been 
popularly associated with evil rather than with 
good. As James says: "We talk of the smoking- 
habit, and the swearing-habit, and the drinking- 

8 See, "Teaching of Bible Classes," p. 147. 



INTELLECTUAL 4l 

habit, but not of the abstention-habit, or the 
moderation-habit, or the courage-habit. But the 
fact is that our virtues are habits as much as 
our vices. "^ 

Habit is character. Ex-President EHot re- 
cently said: "I have seen for thirty years a steady 
stream of youth coming to the University, eight- 
een or nineteen years of age. In almost every 
instance the character of the youth is determined 
before he goes to college. He has determined the 
way he faces before he is eighteen years old." 
"A character," says J. S. Mill, "is a completely 
fashioned will." The Bible recognizes the im- 
portance of the habit of right thinking. "Thou 
wilt keep him in perfect peace whose mind is 
stayed on Thee." "Think on these things." 
"As a man thinketh in his heart, so is he." 
Thought determines character. 

"Sow a thought and reap a deed. 
Sow a deed and reap a habit, 
Sow a habit and reap a character. 
Sow a character and reap a destiny." 

Gladstone said: "What is really wanted is to 
light up the spirit that is within a boy. In 
some sense and in some effectual degree there 
is in every boy the material of good work in the 
world; in every boy, not only in those who are 

» James, "Talks to Teachers," p. 64. 



42 BOYOLOGY 

brilliant, not only in those who are quick, but 
in those who are stolid, and even in those who 
are duU." 

As the boy reaches the seventeenth and eight- 
eenth years, his receptive powers quicken, and 
there comes that period when the ego is at its 
height, the time of self-assertion, self-sufficiency, 
self-feeling, and braggadocio. Up until this 
period he accepted things because he was told» 
but now he begins to think for himself. It is 
the period when doubts and questionings arise. 
But remember that doubt is not the same as 
unbelief; doubt is canH believe, unbehef is wonH 
believe. Doubt often impUes intellectual strength. 
He wants to go it alone. Here is where parental 
authority and self-control, or rather freedom 
from the control of parents, clash. If we under- 
stand the individual dispositions of boys, we may 
have a more correct idea of their motives. Dis- 
position involves temperament, and both are 
factors in the will. While many of the motives 
of early boyhood are still present, yet those 
which dominate now are those of vigorous im- 
pulse and self-sufficiency, love of activity, love 
of power, love of fame, seK-importance, and the 
like. A wise parent or leader will seek the good 
in each emotion and utilize it as a motive force. 
Discipline is necessary in the formation of char- 
acter, but it is only an aid, and requires other 



INTELLECTUAL 4S 

forces to assist it. When penalties are inflicted, 
their guiding principle should be their influence 
on character. 

Physical compulsion is not moral discipline. 
Love and confidence are the great restraining 
factors. "Love means patience when the boy 
slips backward, appreciation when he steps for- 
ward . . . and forgiveness for his stubbornness, 
indifference, and ingratitude. Love substitutes 
commendation for condemnation, prevention for 
pimishment, and cooperation for coercion. "^° It 
means the thirteenth chapter of First Corinthians 
in action. 

Consciously or unconsciously we have been 
placing too much stress upon material things 
rather than upon ideals, until the boy has a 
confusion of ideas regarding life, instead of in- 
spiring ideals. There is such a thing as a boy 
growing into his ideal. Music, books, pictures, 
help to create his ideals. Observation, imagina- 
tion, discrimination, and judgment are all in- 
volved in the cultivation of ideals. The re- 
ceptive are far ahead of the creative and expressive 
powers in boys of the teen age. As time goes 
on, the desire for expression will grow and should 
be encouraged, but with wisdom and tact. It 
is at this point that memory comes to his aid. 
Memory is not a special faculty, but a general 

10 Raffety, "Brothering the Boy," p. 6. 



44 BOYOLOGY 

condition of the mind. Without memory and 
attention mental oj>erations would be impossible. 
"When the mind acts in such a way that it 
records, retains, and restores the ideas gained 
by its own activity, it is said to perform an act 
of memory." Memorizing passages in literature, 
formulae in mathematics, definitions of important 
terms in science is not only the acquisition of 
knowledge, but as Ruskin says, is adding to the 
storehouse which the boy is filling for future use. 
What a wonderful language is music! It has 
been called the "universal language of mankind." 
"There is no feeling, perhaps, except the ex- 
tremes of fear and grief, that does not find relief 
in music — that does not make a man work or 
play better." To hundreds of boys, however, 
music is an unknown language. The boy*s 
sensitive ears, capable of recognizing from forty 
to thirty-eight thousand sounu vibrations per 
second, will just as easily make a brain record 
of the best as it will of the trash, and should 
be trained early in life to distinguish the differ- 
ence between the kind of music which exists 
but for a day and that which abides in the soul 
forever. The short life of a popular song or 
tune is in itself an evidence of its worth lessness. 
Compare with this the virility of the great 
oratorios, symphonies, and hymns of the church. 
Take for instance "The Messiah," written by 



INTELLECTUAL 45 

Handel in 1742, increasing in beauty each time 
it is sung, and enjoyed by thousands at the 
Christmas festival season, or those old melodious 
airs like "Home, Sweet Home," "Swanee River," 
and scores of others that are not only melodious 
but full of meaning, the words finding a response 
in heart and soul, as the strains of melody and 
the words come through the wide open doorway 
of the ear. 

Joseph Cook says: "Attention is the mother 
of memory, and interest the mother of attention. 
To secure memory, secure both her mother and 
her grandmother." How many audiences to-day 
can sing through two verses of "My Country! 
'Tis of Thee" without getting the lines mixed, 
or sing more than one verse of the "Star Spangled 
Banner," without hesitation or uncertainty.'^ It 
is because we do not think out the thing to be 
remembered. Better thinking means always a 
better memory. Getting a thing by heart as 
well as by head will make a boy remember for- 
ever, for he always remembers the thing his 
heart is in. Hubbell says: "Too little emphasis 
is placed on memory as a treasure house. The 
wear and tear of daily life tends to rob one of 
so much of the joy and beauty and freshness of 
youth, that if in age he may lay under tribute 
the treasures stored in a well-spent youth, he is 
not only rich for all his life, but finds these 



46 BOYOLOGY 

treasures developing new degrees of excellence 
and reinforcing his mind in the hour of sorest 
need. There comes a great temptation — ^and an 
inspiring quotation, whether poetry or Scripture, 
comes to make him strong. There comes a time 
of discouragement — and the ray of hope bursts 
through the clouded sky of his Ufe. There comes 
an hour of doubt — and the high faith which has 
been stored in the mind and heart is brought 
back again, so that he mounts up as an eagle, 
can run and not be weary, can walk and not 
Mint."" 

Language is the vehicle of thought, and the 
necessary channel for both impression and ex- 
pression, and yet, owing to the love for the 
sensational and the desire to be original, "Slan- 
guage" and not "language" is the modern boy's 
vehicle of expression. Conradi some years ago 
made a very interesting study of the origin 
and use of "slang," and the results are printed 
in Hall's "Adolescence," Vol. II. It appears 
that between 14 and 16 years of age is when 
its use is greatest. The reasons given were 
that slang was more emphatic, more exact, 
more concise, convenient, relieved formality, was 
natural, manly, etc. Only a few thought it 
was \iilgar. A somewhat striking fact is the 
manifold variation of a pet typical form, for 

u HubbeU,-"Up Through ChUdhood," p. 188. 



INTELLECTUAL 47 

instance, "Wouldn't that you?" the blank be- 
ing filled in by jar, choke, rattle, scorch, get, start, 
etc., or instead of you, adjectives are devised. 
Conventional modes of speech do not satisfy 
the youth, so that he is often either reticent 
or slangy. Conradi goes on to say that weak 
or vicious slang is too feeble to survive and what 
is vital enough to live fills a need. The final 
authority is the people, and it is better to teach 
youth to discriminate between good and bad 
slang than to forbid it entirely. Emerson calls 
it "language in the making, its crude, vital, 
raw material. It is often an effective school 
of moral description, a palliative for profanity 
and expresses the natural craving for super- 
latives." The antidote to the excessive use of 
slang is to furnish opportunity and incentive 
for the reading of good English through "a gener- 
ous diet of books abounding in ideals, informa- 
tion, adventure, incident, told in strong, accurate, 
and appropriate language."^^ 

In answer to the question, "What is your 
favorite slang expression"? 349 boys representing 
the Young Men's Christian Association and the 
churches of 80 different cities and towns in 
Massachusetts and Rhode Island gave the fol- 
lowing replies. The slang expressions are grouped 



" Burr, "Adolescent Boyhood," p. 17. 



48 



BOYOLOGY 



under the ages of the boys and arranged in order 
of greatest prevalent usage. 



"Gosh!" 
"Good Nightr 
"Oh Gee!" 
"Gee Whizr 
"Doggon it!" 
"Hey yep!" 
"Cheese it!" 
"Darn it!" 
"By goUy!" 
"By jingles!" 



Under 15 Yeabs 

"You saphead!" 
your 



pageful, turn 
the worst is yet to 



You said 

over." 
Cheer up, 

come!" 
For the love of Mike!" 
Ain't no sich thing, by heck. 

Bub!" 
Mein Gott in Himmel!" 



AoE 15 Yeabs 



"Oh gee!" 
"Good Night!" 
"Gee Whiz!" 
"Gosh!" 

"For the love of Mike!" 
-^'Golding it!" 
"Ding Bust it." 
"Hang the luck!" 
"Ge-e-e-e!" 
"HuUy Gee!" 
"Great Guns!" 
"Gee Christmas!" 
"Gosh Hang it!" 
"Doggone it all!" 
"Doggone it!" 
"Ding all the luck!" 
"Cheese it!" 
"You go Fish!" 
"Tough Cheese!" 
"You poor ^sh!" 
"All right!" 
"Watch Out!" 
"Come Across!" 
"Ain't Cha!" 
"Lie dead!" 
"Cut it out!" 
"Ar the dickens!" 



"Oh lu lu!" 
"Oh joy!" 
"You bet!" 
"You win!'* 
"That's different!" 
"You're full of coke!" 
"You're foolish anyway!" 
"You've got a fat chance!'* 
"Yeal!" 
"Coises!" 
"Shoot!" 
"Yah!" 
"Jinks!" 
"Glory be!" 
"Fine dope!" 
"Fat chance!'* 
"Carnsarn it!" 
"Jimminy Crickets!" 
"Son of-a-gun!" 
"Hang the luck!'* 
"What the heck!" 
"I should worry!" 
"Rats, go to grass!" 
"Hear yer, oh yes!" 
"Run up a tree and branch off!" 
"Hurry up, you're wasting 
time!" 



INTELLECTUAL 



49 



"Oh shovel!" 
"Oh Ham!" 
"Oh Bull!" 
;'Can it!" 
"Darn it!" 
"Oh you goup!" 



"What are you selling now, I 

pass!" 
"Do you like fruit? have an 

onion!" 
"Say for the love of Pete, have 

a heart!" 



Age 16 Years 



"Good night!" 

"Darn it!" 

"Gosh!" 

"Gee Whiz!" 

"Cut it out!" 

"For the love of Mike!" 

"Bull!" 

"Au fish!" 

"Gee! you've got me!" 

"Gosh!" 

"Gosh ding it!" 

"Gosh hang it!" 

"Gol ding it!" 

"Oh Baby!" 

"Oh Shucks!" 

"Oh heavens!" 

"Oh thunder!" 

"Oh can it!" 

"Oh the devil!" 

"Oh what a Ham!" 

"Oh cuss it all!" 

"Oh man, oh boy!" 

"Blamed!" 

"Bugger!" 

"Whoops!" 

"Ischkabibble !" 

"Confound it!" 

"Go to it!" 

"Ruin did it!" 

"The deuce!" 

"The devil!" 

"What the dickens!" 

"Masser, Masser!" 



"S'matter Pop! 
"Lay dead!" 
"Hey John!" 
"Au crap!" 
"She did!" 
"Hey guy!" 
"Great Scott!" 
*' Believe me!" 
"Tough cheese!" 
"Nothing stirring!" 
"Holy mackerel!" 
"Fiddle sticks!" 
"Whee doddy!" 
"Whe-e-e-ee, Po-o-oo!" 
"50-50!" 

"Go and Hang!" 
"For crab's sake!'* 
"Hang it all!" 
"Have a lemon!" 
"Pass the pickles!" 
"Cut the raw stuff!" 
"Quit your kidding!" 
"Forget the hot air!" 
"Good night shirt!" 
"Well, I'll be darned!" 
"Go to the bugger!" 
"Get, some pep in it!" 
"You're full of coke!" 
"For the love of Mike!" 
"That's your tough luck!' 
"Ain't it a great 'un!" 
"Godfrey MacmuUen!" 



50 



BOYOLOGY 



Age 

"Gee whiz!" 

"Gosh!" 

"Good night!" 

"Gee!" 

"For the love of Mike!" 

"The deuce!" 

"Gee, that's tuff!" 

"Golly!" 

"Golly Moses!" 

"Bugger!" 

"Heavens!" 

"Bull!" 

"Darn it!" 

"Damm it!" 

"Confound it!" 

"Daugonit!" 

"Oh, hang it!" 

"The deuce with it!" 

"By jove!" 

"By George!" 

"Oh, blue jay!" 

"Oh, hake!" 

"Oh, Murder!" 

"Oh. Thunder!" 



17 Years 

"Oh, Christmas!** 
"Tough luck!" 
"Nothing doin*!" 
"Nobody Home!" 
"Doan, no!" 
"Awfully nice!" 
"Hi! Jack!" 
"Cut it out!" 
"Rackems up!" 
"What the deuce!" 
"ril be darned!" 
"Son of a gun!" 
"Thunder and Ice!" 
"Good night, nurse!" 
"For Gory sake!" 
"Oh, hire a hall!" 
"Have a heart, kid!" 
"What do you mean, kid!" 
"Au, cut your kiddin' !" 
"That's nice, don't fight!" 
"Slide your cow along!" 
"You're so bright your mother 
calls you son!" 



Age 18 Years 

"Oh War!" 

"Damm it!" 

"Ain't!" 

"Whoa Bess!" 
Have-a-heart!" 
Fiddlesticks!" 
You're full of coke!" 
It's more gosh darn fun!" 



•Good night!" 

•Darn it!" 

•Cut it out!" 

•Gosh!" 

•For the love of Mike! 

•Gee!" 

•Gee Whiz!" 

•Gol ding it!" 

'Oh Craps!" 

Age 19 Years 

•Gee!" •'The Hell with it!" 

•Darn it!" ''Crackie!" 

'For the love of Mike!" "Believe me Xantippe!* 

'Gosh!" ••Jimminy Whiskers!" 

•Believe Me!" **Good night!" 



INTELLECTUAL H 

**Have a heart!" "Get your goat!" 

"Gosh darn it!" "I should worry!" 

"Gol darn it!" "What gets my goat!" 

"Damm it!" "O, come on, cut it out!" 
"Hang it!" 

Age 20 Yeabs and Oveb 

"Gosh!" "Oh Hell!" 

"Gee Whiz!" "What's the idea!" 

"By Chowder!" "You poor Simp!" 

"Gosh hang it!" "Stop, you're kidding me now!'* 

"Gee!" 

"Darn it!" 

It will be noticed that as the boys approach 
the later teens, the expressions grow bolder and 
border pretty close, in fact altogether in some 
phrases, to accepted "swear words." 

In the early ages of twelve and thirteen, in- 
terest centers in story telling. "A camp fire, 
or an open hearth with tales of animals, ghosts, 
heroism, and adventure can teach virtue, and 
vocabulary, style, and substance in their native 
unity. "^^ As the boy grows older he becomes 
interested in books of information and it is 
encouraging to note how "Everybody's Library," 
"The Book of Knowledge," "Popular Mechanics" 
is rapidly displacing the "thriller." Guard against 
too much reading, excessive use of slang, and 
too great expenditure of nerve force in the "ab- 
sorbing" book, and skilfully direct his language 
and his reading so that he will enrich his mind 



M HaU, "Youth," p. 258. 



52 BOYOLOGY 

and store away rich and varied knowledge for 
the future years. 

In order to get first-hand information regard- 
ing the kind of books and magazines boys ac- 
tually read and enjoyed most, 326 boys were 
asked the following questions: "Of all the books 
you have ever read which two or three do you 
like best?" and "What magazines do you enjoy 
best?*' The repUes are surprising as well as 
interesting. They are classified according to the 
age of the boy and in the order of the greatest 
preference. The largest proportion of the boys 
were between 15 and 17 years of age. 

Favorite Books and Magazines 

Age 13 

books magazines 

Dan Monro Youth's Companion 

The Boys of '76 Boys' Life 

Two Little Savages Electrical News 

The Cruise of the Cachalot 
Up from Slavery- 
Riders of the Purple Sage 
The Best Man 

Age 14 

BOOKS Double Traitor 

Pilgrim's Progress The Sea Wolf 

The Phantom Ship The Book of Knowledge 

Sherlock Holmes The Merchant of Venice 

Kidnapped The Prince of the House of 

Campmates David 

College Days A Whaleman's Adventure 



INTELLECTUAL 



5$ 



Treasure Island 
The Lost Gold Mine 
Ivanhoe 

Boy Scouts Books 
Top Notch Library- 
Lone Star Rangers 
The Rainbow Trail 
The Little Shepherd 
Kingdom Come 



of 



MAGAZINES 

Popular Mechanics 

American Boy 

Youth's Companion 

Boys' Life 

Scientific American 

Life 

Literary Digest 



Agb 15 



BOOKS 

Ivanhoe 

Treasure Island 

Les Miserables 

Tom Sawyer 

The Last of the Mohicans 

A Tale of Two Cities 

A Man Without a Country 

The Trail of the Lonesome 

Pine 
The Horseman of the Plains 
The Spoilers 
The Doctor 
Ben Hur 
The Rosary 

Knights of King Arthur 
Stover at Yale 
Tennessee Shad 
Around the World in 80 

Days 
The Shepherd of the HUls 
Red Pepper Burns 
David Harum 



Kadet Kit Karey 
Sir Nigel 
The Spy 

The Boss of Wind River 
Lincoln 

Corporal Cameron 
Dave Darrin Series at An- 
napolis 
The Scarlet Letter 
Captain Eric 
Winning His Way 
Silas Marner 
Black Beauty 
Tom Brown's Schooldays 
Pollyanna 
Dave Porter Books 
Mr. Pratt 
Kasan 

Julian Mortimer 
The Heritage of the Desert 
The Amateur Gentlemen 
Kim 
The Call of the Wild 



54 



BOYOLOGY 



Freckles 

The Little Shepherd of 
Kingdom Come 

The Story of a Bad Boy 

Sherlock Holmes 

Only an Irish Boy 

Nicholas Nickleby 

A West Point Yearling 

Campus Days 

The Sky Pilot 

Ward Hill Series 

Lorna Doone 

Don Quixote 

The Head Coach 

Uncle Sam's Boys as Re- 
cruits 

Story of Panama Canal 

Western Stories 

Marvels of Modern Me- 
chanics 

Robinson Crusoe 

Gold 

Camping for Boys 

Rolf in the Woods 

The Blazed Trail 

The Turmoil 

The Count of Monte Cristo 

The Three Musketeers 

Rise of Roscoe Paine 

By Right of Conquest 

History of U. S. 

As You Like It 

Rover Boy Series 

Hector's Inheritance 

Riders of the Purple Sage 



The Stroke Oar 
Captains Courageous 
Scottish Chiefs 
Planting the Wilderness 
Alger Series 
The Sea Wolf 
Life of Washington 
Up from Slavery 
The Talisman 
Jane Gray 
Ready Money 
Truth 

MAGAZINES 

Popular Mechanics 

American Boy 

Life 

Youth's Companion 

Boys* Life 

Cosmopolitan 

Literary Digest 

World's Work 

Saturday Evening Post 

St. Nicholas 

Boys' World 

Outlook 

American 

Judge 

Motion Pictures 

Baseball 

Review of Reviews 

Popular Electricity 

Everybody's 

Illustrated World 



/ 



INTELLECTUAL 



55 



Age 16 



BOOKS 

Treasure Island 
Ivanhoe 
Freckles 

The Last of the Mohicans 
Silas Marner 
The Prospector 
The Perfect Tribute 
The Twisted Skein 
Prince of Graustark 
White Fang 
Tim and Roy in Camp 
Little Sir Galahad 
Laddie 

The Lay of the Last Min- 
strel 
Bob, Son of Battle 
Blindness of Virtue 
David Harum 
O. Henry's Works 
As You Like It 
Julius Caesar 
The Sky Pilot 
Donald MacCrae 
Tommy's Remington Bat- 
tle 
Pilgrim's Progress 
Camp in the Foot Hills 
Prescott at West Point 
Campus Days 
Dickens' Works 
Rover Boy Series 
Dave Porter Series 
- Sea Wolf 



V 



A Tale of Two Cities 

Harry Watson's High 
School Days 

Beltare the Smith 

The Varmint 

Boy Scout Series 

The Mansion 

Ramona 

Leadership 

Life of George Washington 

Dorymate 

History of U. S. 

The Vicar of Wakefield 

Hans Brinker 

Captains Courageous 

The Patrol of the Sun 
Dance Trail 

Macbeth 

Crofton Chums 

Robinson Crusoe 

The Maid of the Whisper- 
ing Hills 

College Life (Dean Briggs) 

Tom Swift Series 

The Shepherd of the Hills 

The Inside of the Cup 

The Master of the Inn 

Near to Nature's Heart 

The Blazed Trail 

The Spy 

PoUyanna 

Overland Red 

Lorna Doone 

Michael O'Halloran 



56 



BOYOLOGY 



A Final Reckoning 
Ben Hur 

Paul Leonard's Sacrifice 
The Call of the Wild 
Travels with a Donkey 
Ninety-Three 
The Lost Prince 
Compelled Men 
The Other Wise Man 
Glengarry School Days 
Life of Benjamin Franklin 
The Merchant of Venice 
A Man Without a Country 
The Lure of the Labrador 

Wild 
The Winning of Barbara 

Worth 
Les Miserables 
The Valley of Fear 
Riders of the Purple Sage 
On Your Mark 
The Head Coach 
The Little Shepherd of 

Kingdom Come 
Puddin'head Wilson 
White Fang 

The Girl of the Limberlost 
Ungava Bob 
The Talisman 
Frank Hunter's Peril 
Penrod 

Winning His Way 
Wolf Hunter 
The Three Musketeers 
Tom Sawyer 



The Harvester 
The Golden Hope 
Sheridan's Memoirs 
Lookout Island Campers 
Sherlock Holmes 
Kim 

On the Wings of the Morn- 
ing 
Fighting in Flanders 



MAGAZINES 

Popttlar Mechanics 

American Boy 

Boy Life 

Literary Digest 

Youth's Companion 

Scientific American 

Saturday Evening Post 

Popular Science Monthly 

Outlook 

Top Notch 

Popular 

Baseball 

Everybody's 

Atlantic Monthly 

World's Work 

Review of Reviews 

Collier's 

Geographic 

St. Nicholas 

House and Garden 

Photoplay 

Pictorial Review 

Outing 



INTELLECTUAL 



57 



Natural Sportsman 

Automobile Trade Journal 

Leslie's 

Life 

All Story 



Age 



BOOKS 

Ivanhoe 

Silas Marner 

The Call of the Wild 

Treasure Island 

The Last of the Mohicans 

A Man Without a Country 

The Trail of^the Lonesome 

Pine 
The Golden Silence 
The Girl of the Limberlost 
Winning His Way 
The Last Days of Pompeii 
The Merchant of Venice 
Lorna Doone 
Boy Pilot of the Lake 
Tom the Telephone Boy 
The Blazed Trail 
The Heritage of the Desert 
A Tale of Two Cities 
Henry Esmond 
David Harum 
Julius Caesar 
Oliver Twist 
Freckles 
The Christian 
The Harvester 
Lone Star Rangers 



Cosmopolitan 
Physical Culture 
Farm Journal 
Technical World 
Home Journal 

17 

Scottish Chiefs 

Motor Boat Series 

Sherlock Holmes 

Robinson Crusoe 

Stover of Yale 

The Speedwell Boys 

Black Rock 

White Fang 

Boys of Lakeport Series 

The Deerslayer 

Captain Carey 

Desert Gold 

Hiawatha 

The Lady of the Lake 

Tom Afloat 

The Turmoil 

Tom Sawyer 

20,000 Leagues Under the 

Sea 
The Riders of the Purple 

Sage 
Rover Boys' Series 
Boy Aviator Series 
Bruce Douglas 
David at Oak Hill 
Following the Ball 
Gulliver's Travels 
The Vagabond 



58 



BOYOLOGY 



The Chambered Nautilus 

The Two Gun Men 

Kidnapped 

Kasan 

The Shepherd of the Hills 

The Virginians 

Captain Eric 

In the Valley of the Moon 

The Talisman 



MAGAZINES 



Popular Mechanics 
American Boy 
Youth's Companion 
Boys* Life 
Scientific American 



National Sportsman 

Cosmopolitan 

Munsey*s 

St. Nicholas 

Outlook 

Moving Picture 

Hearsfs 

Photoplay 

All Story 

Everybody's 

Saturday Evening Post 

Top Notch 

Architectural Record 

Short Stories 

Literary Digest 

Inland Printer 

Popular Science Monthly 



AoE 18 



BOOKS 

Treasure Island 

The Call of the Wild 

Silas Marner 

Freckles 

The Little Shepherd of 

Kingdom Come 
Spoilers 

Happy Hawkins 
The Steering Wheel 
Winning His W^ay 
Sink or Swim 
How the Other Half Lives 
Tramping with the Tramps 
The Shepherd of the HiUs 
King Spruce 



John Halifax, Gentleman 

Penrod 

Laddie 

Tom the Bootblack 

The Landloper 

The Harvester 

Big Tremaine 

The Inside of the Cup 

Pollyanna 

The Birds' Christmas Carol 

At the Home Plate 

Ivanhoe 

The Trail of the Lonesome 

Pine 
The Merchant of Venice 
Williams of West Point 



INTELLECTUAL 



59 



The Cricket on the Hearth 

Dickens' Works 

Les Miserables 

The Count of Monte Cristo 

Oliver Twist 

Lorna Doone 

The Crisis 

The Light that Failed 

The Three Musketeers 

Quo Vadis 

The Manhood of the Master 

Overland Red 

David Copperfield 

The Virginian 

Satan Sanderson 

Jack Hall 

A Man Without a Country 



MAGAZINES 

Popular Mechanics 

American Boy 

Literary Digest 

Photoplay 

Independent 

Collier^s 

Youth's Companion 

Motion Pictures 

Outing 

Top Notch 

Sportsman 

McClure's 

Cosmopolitan 

Physical Culture 

Life 

Baseball 



Age 19 



BOOKS 

Treasure Island 

The Call of the Wild 

Lorna Doone 

The Virginian 

Two Years Before the Mast 

The Mansion 

The Other Wise Man 

The Efficient Life 

Acres of Diamonds 

Gene-Stratton P,o r t e r' s 

books 
Freckles 

Life of Abraham Lincoln 
Ivanhoe 
Hamlet 



The Deserted Village 
The Bishop's Shadow 
The Man in the Iron Mask 
Plain Tales from the Hills 
Up from Slavery 
The Three Musketeers 
The Shepherd of the Hills 
Macbeth 
Ben Hur 

MAGAZINES 

Popular Mechanics 
Literary Digest 
American 
Scientific American 



60 



BOYOLOGY 



St. Nicholas 
Association Men 
Century 
Everybody's 

AoB 20 

BOOKS 

Dynamic Sociology 

The Last of the Mohicans 

The Half Back 

The Making of an Ameri- 
can 

Ivanhoe 

The Trail of the Lonesome 
Pine 

The Manhood of the Master 

The King Behind a King 

The Shepherd of the Hills 

A good history of the 
World 

Adam Bede 

The Efficient Life 

Penrod 

Two Little Savages 

In His Steps 

How the Inner Light Failed 

The Man Christ Jesus 

Some Epochs of Life 

Life of Christ 



Boys' Life 
Youth's Companion 
American Boy 
World's Work 

AND Over 

The Meaning of Prayer 
The Man from Glengarry 
The Choir Invisible 



MAGAZINES 

World's Work 

American 

Life 

Pictorial Review 

Personality 

Everybody's 

Popular Mechanics 

Independent 

McClure's 

Top Notch 

Successful Farming 

Association Men 

Collier's 

American Youth 

Outing 

Century 

National Sportsman 



The camera, magnifying glass, plays, manual 
training, travel, all have their value in the 
development of the mind, so that the boy may- 
know himself. The power the mind has for 
knowing itself, its own acts, states, and pur- 



INTELLECTUAL 61 

poses, is called "consciousness." Consciousness 
is the ultimate fact of mental life. It is a charac- 
teristic of the mind. "Consciousness also in- 
cludes the power of the soul to know itself as 
the knower. This is the great central fact of 
the mind. Indeed it is so fundamental that it 
is often regarded as being synonymous with 
the mind itself. It is this that gives me my 
sense of personal identity, that gives me the 
knowledge that I am I, without which there 
would be no basis for other mental operations. 
Consciousness is the general name for all mental 
operations. The soul gains knowledge through 
the five senses: sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch. 
One sense helps another. At a railroad crossing 
we read, *Stop, look, listen.' The senses have 
been called *Scouts of the soul.' "" They are 
the windows through which the mind looks out 
on the material world. Sensations crowd in upon 
the boy's experience and the range of his utter- 
ance is constantly enlarging. In genuine man- 
hood, manhood of the largest measure, there is 
a longing of the soul for knowledge, an intel- 
lectual trend, positive and intense, that is cease- 
less in its pursuit of truth. It is our privilege 
to open up to youth the world of truth and 
reality in which he dwells, so that he will see 
beauty where there is beauty, his heart will 

1* See, "The Teaching of Bible Classes," p. 93. 



62 BOYOLOGY 

respond to all that is pure and noble, his sym- 
pathies be aroused by every wail of distress, he 
will delight in all that is good and spurn all 
that is evil, he will be keenly alive to the moral 
qualities of every act, he will realize that every 
violation of the moral law gives pain — ^he will 
be the complete man, considerate of the feelings 
of others and responsive to all the calls of hu- 
manity. 

"Know thyself as the Lord of the chariot. 
The body as only the car. 
Know also the reason as driver. 
The horses our organs are. 

"There's always a lower, a higher choice. 
And it's thine to choose, to shun; 
To list to the tempter or hear the voice. 

With cheer in its tones, *Well done.' 
Your loss or your gain, and 'tis yours to say. 
Which voice you shall hearken from day to day. 

**The safe course? Need I repeat the thought? 

The higher your choice, 'tis plain. 
The clearer the vision the mind has caught. 

The sweeter the song's refrain. 
And upward mounting the soul's sure flight 
Is bathed in the grander celestial light. 

"For what is all that time can give. 
Unless in tune we truly live? 
And what at end is human gold. 
Unless when life's full story's told. 
Some soul's been purged because of touch 
Of our life's gift." 



CHAPTER m 

Emotional Characteristics 

"For there are moments in life, when the heart is so full 
of emotion. 
That if by chance it be shaken, or into its depths like 

a pebble 
Drops some careless word, it overflows, and its secret 
Spilt on the ground like water, can never be gathered 
together." 

Longfellow — The Courtship of 

Miles Standish — Part VI. 

There are some people who think that a boy 
has but little feeling and they trample upon 
many of the things which he deems holy as if 
they were mere bubbles. A careless word, an 
unsympathetic attitude, an unfortunate laugh 
has caused a kind of grief to the boy which time 
itself has failed to heal. Boys call it "hurt 
feelings." Failure to understand a boy's feel- 
ings or emotions, often accounts for the in- 
ability of older people to "hold" him during 
his "storm and stress" period. 

"Feeling," says H. Thiselton Mark, "is the 
quality of pleasurableness or painfulness which 
attaches in some degree to practically all our 



64 BOYOLOGY 

experiences." We feel hungry, feel tired, feel 
rested, feel well, feel angry, feel afraid. "To 
say that we are born with definite capacities for 
feeling is but another way of saying that we 
are bom with one of the first essentials of con- 
scious personality."* 

"Feelings which have a basis in intelligence 
are generally called emotions, and are sometimes 
sub-divided and designated passions^ emotions^ 
and sentiments. With this classification, emo- 
tions occupy the middle ground, as medium in 
intensity, while passions are violent emotions, 
emotion which has passed beyond restraint, and 
sentiments are emotions of a mild type. Pas- 
sions are the whirlwind of feelings, sentiments 
are a gentle breeze, while emotion is a word 
which stands for the general body of feelings, 
capable of passionate excess on the one hand 
or a gentle flow on the other. "^ 

The emotional life of boys between thirteen 
and eighteen years of age undergoes great and 
sudden changes, a series of paradoxes. These 
peculiarities may be the better understood if we 
have a definition of the four great types of tem- 
perament. First the weak motor temperament, 
formerly called the sanguine. This is the lively, 
excitable, enthusiastic, "red headed" or "tow 



1 Mark, "The Unfolding of Personality," p. 82. 
* Fiak, "Man Building," p. 134. 



EMOTIONAL 65 

headed** boy with blue eyes, fair skin, and 
animated face, a boy with respiratory and cir- 
culatory system well developed, requiring very 
little stimulation to exertion, but, unfortunately, 
the eflPects of stimulation soon die away. He 
depends largely upon his feelings, a sort of 
"Georgie Giveup." Second, the strong motor 
temperament, or the choleric, the intense, hot- 
tempered boy of action, energetic, full of deter- 
mination, self-reliance, and confidence, with the 
will generally uppermost; a boy with well-de- 
veloped muscular system, hair and eyes dark, 
complexion sometimes sallow, face impassive. 
He has slower reaction and is more enduring 
than the boy of sanguine temperament. Third, 
the strong sensor temperament, or sentimental or 
perhaps better still "reflective*' type, usually a 
boy of thought, reflection, and sentiment, who 
has great love of poetry, music, and nature; not 
very practical, the dreamer, a boy with slender 
figure and delicate, motions quick, head large, 
eyes bright and expressive. Fourth, the weak 
sensor temperament, or phlegmatic, a slow-and- 
steady, patient, self-reliant boy, somewhat slug- 
gish, with mind heavy and torpid, sometimes 
stupid; a boy with face round and expression- 
less, lips thick, abdomen large, body generally 
disinclined to exertion, ready for the "eats'* 
at all times and hours. While boys generally 



66 BOYOLOGY 

may be classified into these groups, you will 
find that probably no boy has a temperament 
purely weak motor or strong motor, or weak 
sensor or strong sensor. This is particularly 
true as boys reach maturity. During adolescence, 
however, temperamental differences assert them- 
selves with full vigor, and there is a broad and 
readily traceable distinction between the "motor" 
and "sensory" or the "active" and "sensitive" 
boy. 

Having before us these four general types of 
boys let us trace some of their emotional in- 
stincts. Ribot in his "Psychology of Emotion" 
gives the following dominant emotional instincts: 
Fear, aversion toward the strange, anger, affec- 
tion, positive and negative self-feeling, the sex- 
instinct, inner freedom, the instinct of efficiency, 
sympathy, reverence, the sense of dependence, 
surprise, and wonder. "Our emotional instincts 
are at the very heart of our personality; accom- 
panied, as they are, by instincts to behavior and 
intellectual impulses, they are the motive forces 
within us tending to make us what we are."^ 

Fear is an emotional instinct which manifests 
itself very early in a boy's life — ^fear of noises, 
strange people, the darkness, solitude, etc. That 
great interpreter of child life, James Whitcomb 



» Mark, "The Unfolding of Personality," p. 104. 



EMOTIONAL 67 

Riley, senses this emotion in his "Little Orphant 
Annie" : 

**Onc't they was a little boy wouldn't say his prayers — 
An' when he went to bed at night, away up stairs. 
His Mammy heerd him holler, an' his Daddy heerd him 

bawl. 
An' when they turn't the kivvers down, he wasn't there 

at all! 
An' they seeked him in the rafter-room, an* cubby-hole, 

an' press. 
An' seeked him up the chimbly-flue, an' ever'wheres, I 

guess; 
But all they ever found was thist his pants an' round- 
about! 
An' the Gobble-uns'U git you 
Ef you 
Don't 
Watch 
Out!" 

At this awful threat you can see the tiny 
listeners crouch with fear as they inwardly re- 
solve to say their prayers for fear of the "(xobble- 
uns." The hardest fears to control are the 
fears that are purely of the imagination. Have 
you ever whistled when you were afraid? What 
we consider foolish fears are in reality very 
serious to a child and are the gift of heredity. 
Even weaker animals have this sense of fear; 
when one faces a danger it cannot overcome, 
it flees for safety. As the boy grows older and 
becomes wiser and stronger, fear becomes a 



68 BOYOLOGY 

great educational factor in his life. During the 
teens, fear becomes a reasonable guide because 
of knowledge and experience. Fear of being lost 
passes over to fear of losing the points of the com- 
pass; fear of great animals and "Gobble-uns" 
diminishes. Fear becomes increasingly less physi- 
cal and more social, and manifests itself in 
shyness, blushing, giggling, chewing the nails, 
awkwardness, twisting, trembling. 

At this period the relation between parent and 
boy should be of the closest character. Fear of 
being misunderstood has kept many a boy from 
confiding to his parent the secret things of his 
life. A father's stem face and angry voice has 
caused more than one boy to lie, for fear that 
if the truth were told imjust punishment would 
be meted out to him. For a boy has his fail- 
ings, and, if sympathetically guided, they will 
disappear as do warts and freckles and childish 
features. Discipline is necessary in directing a 
boy's life, and he should be made to imderstand 
the meaning of "Whatsoever a man soweth that 
shall he also reap." Then fear becomes a positive 
force in his moral development, such as the 
fear of giving pain or disappointment to those 
whom he loves or esteems, and the kind of fear 
that begets respect. Remove fear of wrong 
doing from the world and you would have pande- 
monium. Fear begotten of knowledge is the 



EMOTIONAL 69 

great moral safeguard of youth and should al- 
ways be encouraged. 

Aversion toward the strange is a deep- 
rooted instinct or emotion. It is the dislike 
to the unaccustomed or the strange, and has 
much to do with the "tribal" or "gang'* con- 
sciousness. It is the "do not feel at home" 
element in the boy. "We do not like a man 
'whose character is such that we may reasonably 
expect injuries from him or in whom there is 
such an element of the unknown that we cannot 
be sure of ourselves in his presence. This emo- 
tional instinct shows itself in the framing of 
codes of conduct whereby men somewhat sternly 
ostracize those who do not conform to standard."* 
This instinct wisely directed will help a boy 
choose the right sort of companions, but if un- 
directed will make him a snob of the worst sort. 

In "Forward Pass" Dan Vinton's father gives 
him this advice on the night before he starts 
for a preparatory school in the east. "Don't 
make your friendship too cheap; if a fellow wants 
it, let him pay the price, if he has the making 
of a real friend, he will do it." It is the definite 
standing aloof from anything which is unworthy, 
or behavior not based upon high standards of 
living, which should be encouraged in every boy 
during this period of adolescence. Egotistic 

* Mark, "The Unfoldimj of Personality," p. 86. 



70 BOYOLOGY 

emotions have a place in the life of a boy, espe- 
cially in connection with his personal desires and 
ambitions, such as the pursuit of scholarship, 
satisfaction in the duty performed, feeling of 
esteem based on right living and acts of unself- 
ishness, but unworthy egotistic emotions, such 
as pride, vanity, love of approbation, jealousy, 
self-conceit, haughtiness, should at their first 
appearance in a boy, be stifled. 

Anger is one of the first emotional instincts 
to manifest itself in a boy. Its legitimate purpose 
is defense. Anger which degenerates into un- 
controlled brutal passion is criminal. G. Stanley 
Hall says, "Anger should be a great and diffused 
IX)wer in life, making it strenuous, giving it 
zest and power to the struggle for survival and 
mounting to righteous indignation."^ The rapid 
growth of a boy's body coupled with lack of poise 
and judgment seems to account for the develop- 
ment of the fighting instinct. In his great desire 
to "show off" his physical powers he makes state- 
ments regarding his achievements which arouse 
resentment in his hearers. Then comes the 
battle of words followed by the battle of fists, 
for like his savage ancestry he settles his dis- 
putes in the primitive physical fashion. Arbitra- 
tion has not yet come into his vocabulary or 
understanding. The boy in the grammar grade 

* HaU, "Adole8oenoe,'^VoL I, p. 355. 



EMOTIONAL 71 

is a natural scrapper and squabbler, who carries 
a chip on his shoulder most of the time, inviting 
"some boy his size" to knock it off. Anger is 
generally explosive and brief. Teasing and tanta- 
lizing a boy to excess during these years is often 
the cause of irritability and a hysterical condi- 
tion. A boy's anger is sometimes aroused by a 
sense of injustice in being over-punished for 
minor wrongs, or it may be aroused through 
indulgence. When he can't have what he wants, 
temper — "high spirits joined to nerves and 
will" — ^ goes off guard and then follows a scene 
of anger which is really passion, for which the 
boy is after all not to be blamed. "Fathers, 
provoke not your children to anger," or, as Wey- 
mouth translates it, "Fathers, do not fret and 
harass your children or you may make them 
sullen and morose" (Colossians 3:21) is an 
ancient biblical admonition still applicable to 
parents of today. 

Usually at about sixteen years of age the 
boy begins to win real victories over bad temper 
and uncontrolled anger. "The attainment of 
full growth and of large muscular power, the 
large heart and lungs, the well oxygenated blood 
driven at high pressure, the activity and young 
vitality of all the tissues and organs give buoy- 



• Mrs. Chenery. 



7« BOYOLOGY 

ancy and courage and a sense of power. "^ The 
fighting instinct now becomes a strong impulse 
to do great things. Thomas M. BaUiet says: 
"If you crush the fighting instinct you get the 
coward; if you let it grow wild, you get the 
bully; if you train it, you have the strong, self- 
controlled man of will." 

A boy attending a preparatory school caused 
his father considerable surprise when his report 
card reached home, by having under "deport- 
ment" the mark "good-plus." It was somewhat 
unusual, in fact, so much so that the father 
visited the school to ascertain the reason for 
this unexpected outburst of goodness. Upon 
reaching the school, the father went to the 
office of the Head Master. After exchanging 
greetings, the father said, "Won't you frankly 
tell me how my boy got *good-plus' in deport- 
ment?" "Gladly," said the Head Master. "The 
other afternoon your boy was with a group of 
boys on the campus and one of the group started 
in to tell a dirty story. Almost immediately 
your boy walked up to him and said, *Look here. 
Bill, if you keep on telling that story I'll knock 
you down.' Bill thought he was joking and 
continued to tell the story, when your boy 
made good his promise. He not only knocked 
Bill down, but gave him a good thrashing as 

'T Tyler, "Growth and Education," p. 183. 



EMOTIONAL 7S 

well. Naturally the news of the fight reached 
my office and I sent for your boy. When he 
came I requested him to tell me all about the 
affair on the campus and he told what I have 
been telling you, only he added this, *I'll knock 
down any fellow who tries to tell me that kind 
of a story, for I have too much love and respect 
for my mother and sister to permit that kind 
of filth to be poured into my ears.' When the 
report card was made out I felt that your boy 
deserved *good-plus' in deportment, and. Sir, I 
would like to have about one hundred boys 
like your boy in my school." This boy was 
never told in his early boyhood, "You must never 
fight, only naughty boys fight," but, on the 
contrary, he was instructed that it was the 
proper thing to defend the pure name of mother 
and woman. Righteous indignation or anger 
controlled is often a manifestation of chivalry. 
If the fighting instinct aroused by righteous 
anger is cultivated in a boy we have the de- 
fender of home, church, and country. Fifty 
years ago the Union was saved by an army of 
boys. The prayer of every youth should be: 

"When from the field of mimic strife. 

Of strength with strength, and speed with speed, 
We face the sterner fight of life 

As still our strength, in time of need, 
God of our youth, be with us then. 

And make us men, and make us men!'* 



74 BOYOLOGY 

'"The instinct of affection," says Ribot, "im- 
plies spontaneous attachment to its object and 
often the rendering of spontaneous forms of 
service, as is seen most clearly in maternal 
affection. ... It is an unbreakable thread of 
gold running through and through our social 
life. It is the very soul of home-life and the 
family relationship. It is the root-element in 
friendship, loyalty, patriotism, comity of na- 
tions, the enthusiasm of humanity."* 

Love is a social feeling, a desire for others, a 
"chmnminess." Did any boy ever run away 
from home who enjoyed the privilege of a father- 
chum? Affection or love is the greatest of the 
emotions. There is no other feeling that is of 
equal force in the development of a boy*s char- 
acter. **The heart of a boy — God made it and 
made it like Himself, and when we locate it," 
says Dr. Lilburn, "we shall find, I think, that 
it is the largest part of the boy."® You cannot 
measure its affection, therefore 

"Seek to shape it outwardly. 
Whatever moves the heart of a child 
Because even the child's love can decay 
If not nourished carefully." 

The love of a boy is to be tested always by 
its effect upon the will. It most shows itself 

* Mark, "Unfolding of Personality," p. 88. 

• Lilburn, "Winning the Boy," p. 36. 



EMOTIONAL 75 

in deeds aroused by a capacity for doing. Love 
without service becomes a sentimental bubble. 
There is great danger lest parents, blinded by 
foolish love, encourage selfishness by doing too 
much for the boy. Selfishness is the great sin 
of the world, sacrifice its antidote. "There is 
a physical love which expresses itself in the 
mere kiss and hug, and word of endearment. 
This is not the all-purifying, all-glorious love, 
so elevating to every life; it is but the door or 
entrance to that other higher form of love which 
manifests itself in service and self-sacrifice. "^° 

There comes a time when there is a great 
danger of love becoming "mushy" sentimental- 
ism, the period when "spells are frequent and 
fleeting, furious and funny. Mumps and measles 
and whooping cough may be evaded, but sweet- 
hearts never."" This is the time when heart 
trouble comes frequently, when Marys and 
Marthas, and Susies and Sallies pass m pro- 
cession until one day "she" comes along; then 
oh! how the boy longs to talk with some one 
about this new experience! Blessed is that boy 
whose father and mother have always shared 
in his every experience and who can go to them 
for that help, of which at this critical time of 
his life he is so much in need. 



w Mrs. HarriBon, "A Study of Child Nature," p. 77. 
" Kirtley, "That Boy of Yours," p. 109. 



76 BOYOLOGY 

Positive and negative self-feeling is a dis- 
tinguishable emotional instinct, which reveals to 
the boy two dispositions, sometimes buoyant 
and sometimes diflSdent. Each form of self- 
feeling has its place and meaning in the develop- 
ment of character. Adult guidance and influence 
is needed to give him balance and to protect 
him from excess in either direction. He needs 
the right kind of activities and experiences. 

The sex-instinct is an emotion which will 
require more space than the limits of this chapter 
permit, and it will therefore be discussed in a 
future chapter. ' -— "— -- '^^v.^;..! 

Inner freedom is the longing within a boy 
to do great things. Courage is perhaps a better 
definition. "I am Youth, I can do all things!" 
cries Peter Pan. It is the breaking out of the 
shell into a large life of freedom. It is the oppo- 
site of cowardice. The coward is the unfree 
man. Inner freedom says to a boy "function, 
do something worth while." This emotion is at 
its height during the later teens. It is the con- 
sciousness of mission. "One of the great acts 
in the drama of youth," says McKinley, "is the 
discovery of life. Going forth master of himself 
and of his own affairs, the youth makes trial 
of life on his own responsibility. He *sees life,' 
he discovers what life is, and his first discovery 
is tragic, for while none can be a man until his 



EMOTIONAL 77 

soul has achieved its freedom, yet none is wise 
enough to make faultless use of freedom when 
secured."*^ 

The boy who has been taught to think 
great thoughts and be ready to function or act 
them out when the time comes, becomes the 
Washington, Lincoln, Gordon, and Grenfell of 
tomorrow. 

Efficiency or perfection is the presence within 
the mind of the demand for adequacy. "Growth," 
says Herbert, "is the child's natural destiny." 
Coming to this fulness of being, a boy some- 
times forgets and we reprove him, when really 
what he lacks is self-control and he needs read- 
justment. As he grows older there should come 
that impulse within himseM to remedy defects, 
to make up for shortcomings. "Inner freedom" 
says "function" — "Efficiency" says "function to 
the full." The boy calls it "doing your best" 
and "making good." This is the emotional in- 
stinct which can be used in arousing his am- 
bition for an education, counteracting his desire 
to leave school and go to work, in creating in 
him a respect for his body and its proper care, 
in molding his moral and religious life, so that 
he may enjoy an all-round, efficient manhood. 

Sympathy is the emotion or instinct which 
enables the boy to understand and enter into 

. J2 McKifiiey, "Educational Evangelism," p. 30. 



78 BOYOLOGY 

the feelings of others, and for the benefit of 
others, even at the expense of personal pain. 
Evidences of sympathy manifest themselves very 
early in the life of a child. An infant two months 
old will smile at his mother's face. A child of 
two years is capable of feeling pity. Later there 
comes a consciousness of his relation to others. 
**I'* becomes "we." This emotion may also be 
called the "altruistic feeUng." "Unselfishness and 
active kindness," says E. P. St. John, "is stirred 
by the realization of another's need."^^ At six- 
teen or seventeen years of age this feeling of 
unselfishness or altruism may become a strong 
motive in helping him to determine the choice 
of a life work, especially the altruistic professions 
such as those of the physician, the minister, the 
missionary, the social worker, the teacher, the 
Association Secretary. There is great danger 
in arousing sympathy unless there is a corre- 
sponding opportunity for expression. Give the 
boy a chance to do a kind act, a chance to re- 
heve suffering, or to bestow a gift. Teach him 
to put himself into his giving and doing. Service 
is an essential in the salvation of a boy. 

Reverence, because of the higher ideas with 
which it is associated, is an emotion which 
affects us most profoundly. The highest instinct 
in man is the religious. A boy's most tangible 

" E. P. St. John, "Child Nature and Child Nurture," p. 68. 



EMOTIONAL 79 

conception of God the Father is his own father. 
The love of a heavenly Father is best understood 
when he sees evidences of love in his own earthly 
father. Justice, mercy, kindness, truth, and 
other attributes of God the Father are best 
comprehended when his own flesh-and-blood 
father exemplifies these attributes in his daily 
life and conduct. Hero worship in a large degree 
is the boy's reverence. Regard for a leader, a 
friend, a parent, always manifests itself by an 
attitude of respect. A boy, however, demands 
of his hero something worthy of his respect and 
reverence, for there comes a time when mere 
physical power or a "stunt act" no longer appeals 
to him. A boy would rather be interested than 
amused. He demands heroism born of moral 
or religious principles. Livingstone dying in the 
heart of Africa; Gordon on his knees in China; 
Stanley, the explorer, reading his Bible daily, 
although lost in darkest Africa; Washington in 
prayer at Valley Forge; Jesus Christ upon the 
Cross, God's visible love for the world — these 
are the heroes who satisfy his ideals, and call 
from him the deepest reverence and devotion. 
The lack of expression of this emotion is the 
failure of adults to respond to his needs. Exam- 
ple speaks louder than precept. When parents 
themselves set the example of reverence for that 
which makes for nobility of character, such as 



80 BOYOLOGY 

worship, prayer. Sabbath observance, and the 
sacred things of life, then the boy will not be 
found wanting. 

The other three emotions: sense of dependence, 
surprise, and wonder are somewhat minor emo- 
tions, and are embodied to some degree in those 
already discussed. 

Stifled emotions lead to coldness, barrenness, 
and hardness in living. The parent who tries 
to help the boy interpret and organize his emo- 
tions will have his reward. This will require 
much patience, prayer, and perseverance as well 
as tact and activity. Keep before the boy God's 
great heroes, those who were all-round men, 
emotion-controlled men, representatives of the 
world's greatest hero — Jesus Christ, men such as 
Chinese Gordon. 

** 'I want a hero' — well, that wish is wise; 

Who hath no hero lives not near to God; 
For heroes are the steps by which we rise 

To reach His hand who lifts us from the sod. 
I'll give you one. You've heard of Chinese Gordon, 

Who laid the hot-brained Mongol low. 
Strong, shod with peace or with sharp-bladed sword on. 

To gain an ally or to crush a foe. 

And reap respect from both. How came it so.?* 
He used no magic, and he owned no spell. 

But with keen glance, strong will, and weighty blow. 
Did one thing at a time and did it well; 

And sought no praise from men, as in God's eye. 

Nobly to live content or nobly die. 



EMOTIONAL ai 

'Some men live near to God, as my right arm 
Is near to me, and thus they walk about 

Mailed in full proof of faith, and bear a charm 
That mocks at fear, and bars the door on doubt. 

And dares the impossible. So Gordon, thou. 
Through the hot stir of this distracted time 

Dost hold thy course, a flaming witness how 
To do and dare, and make our lives sublime 

As God's campaigners. What live we for but this. 
Into the sour to breathe the soul of sweetness. 
The stunted growth to rear to fair completeness. 

Drown sneers in smiles, fill hatred with a kiss. 
And to the sandy waste bequeath the fame 
That the grass grew behind us where we came." 

— J. S. Blacblie. 



CHAPTER IV 

Social Characteristics 

"There are hermit souls that live withdrawn 
In the place of their self-content; 
There are souls like stars, that dwell apart. 

In a fellowless firmament; 
There are pioneer souls that blaze their paths 

Where highways never ran — 
But let me live in a house by the side of the road 
And be a friend to man." 

— Sam Walter Fobs. 

The hermit or recluse is always regarded as 
an abnormal being, for it is a law of nature for 
bees to go in swarms, cattle in herds, birds in 
flocks, fishes in schools, and boys in gangs. "This 
gang instinct is absolutely necessary for the 
proi>er social education of every boy. There is 
no other way . . . whereby he must be saved 
from narrowness of mind, selfishness and self- 
conceit.'*^ "The gang instinct itself,'* says Dr. 
Hall, "is almost a cry of the soul to be influ- 
enced." Up until about eleven years of age the 
boy is still self-centered and must be dealt with 
individually. While he likes to be with other 

1 Forbush, "The Boy Problem," p. 63. 
82 



SOCIAL 8S 

boys, yet the competitive motive is strong, and 
he has no adequate conception of subordinating 
self for the good of the group. As he enters the 
teen period this form of selfishness gradually 
disappears, and a new social consciousness takes 
its place. It is the desire for fellowship. The 
most interesting thing to a boy is another boy. 
Homesickness is a universal disease for which 
there is no better medicine than a sympathetic 
friend, a father, or a mother. 

In the preceding chapters we traced the boy 
through his physical, intellectual, and emotional 
changes and developing instincts until, through 
the senses, he awakens to the consciousness of 
being an integral part of human society. He is 
now becoming acquainted with the world out- 
side himself. His life is widening out. Indis- 
criminate chumship is beginning to wane and 
gives way to the gang. After the gang days 
chumship sets in again and has in it the element 
of endurance and discrimination. This main 
chum period is usually at the age of fifteen or 
sixteen. 

G. E. Johnson has called attention to the fact 
that a very large part of our life is spent in pre- 
paring to live. He says that a cat is a kitten 
for about half of its life; a dog is a puppy for 
about one tenth of its life; it takes a horse one 
seventh of its life to come to maturity; but it 



84 BOYOLOGY 

takes a human being almost one third. Why 
this one third? And if there is a Divine purpose 
in it, should not more attention be given to the 
way these years are spent? 

Misfits in society are the result of neglected 
and, many times, abandoned boyhood. Human 
derelicts are products of a misguided youth. 
Rosenkrantz says that moral culture is the essence 
of social culture. The moral idea grows out of 
the social. According to Prof. James, "By the 
age of fifteen or sixteen the whole array of human 
instincts is complete." Unless the boy is con- 
sidered as a part of society now, as a boy, and 
as a citizen in the making, to be related later to 
social facts, he is hable to get lost in the midst 
of conflicting social conditions. Many social 
forces are pressing in upon him which make it 
imperative that an adult come to his rescue, 
before the destructive social forces claim him as 
their prey. 

"The social instincts are those concerned with 
relations to other persons. This class includes 
sociability, shyness, sympathy, affection, altru- 
ism, modesty, secret iveness, love of approbation, 
rivalry, jealousy, envy."^ 

Desire for sociability, or the friendly instinct, 
is the link that binds man to man, the fire that 
warms an otherwise dead and cheerless world. 



* Weigle, "The Pupil and Teacher," p. 67. 



SOCIAL 85 

It is this instinct which decides the choice in the 
exercise of the "pairing" tendency. "The choice 
of friends," says Hugh Black, "is one of the most 
serious affairs in life, because a man becomes 
moulden into the likeness of what he loves in 
his friend," for 



" 'Tis thus that on the choice of friends 
Our good or evil name depends.'* 



—Gat. 



He who tactfully guides a boy in the selection 
oi his chums or intimate friends is his benefactor. 
It is not only sociability which creates within a 
boy a desire for chumship, but the confiding 
instinct is also developing, and he is now grow- 
ing secretive. He is the possessor of newly 
awakened powers and he is not sure of himself. 
Another boy discovers he is in the same con- 
dition. The two come together and they under- 
stand each other. The things they talk about 
are naturally the things of their daily life, sports, 
ambitions, and — ^girls. They have a peculiar 
whistle, mysterious signs, and even a code lan- 
guage with each other. After awhile, this chum- 
ship emerges into the larger combination of 
congenial spirits and becomes the "gang." 

It is as natural for gangs to come into being 
and as much a part of boy nature, as is the 
•desire to swim or play baseball. "It is safe to 



86 BOYOLOGY 

say that three boys out of four boys," declares 
Puffer, **belong to a gang," and in a study which 
he made of one hundred and forty-six boys of 
the Lyman Industrial School he found one 
hundred and twenty-eight were in gangs. "Boys 
organize," says Swift, **because it is their nature 
to herd together. Self-protection was probably 
the incentive to gregariousness in the lower 
animals, and with the app)earance of man this 
same impulse to unite in bands gained increased 
strength from his helplessness against the fierce 
animals by which he was surrounded."^ 

Dr. Sheldon's study of spontaneously organized 
"gangs" to the number of six himdred and 
twenty-three, which he fully described, revealed 
the fact that 1}^ i>er cent were philanthropic, 
3}^ per cent secret, 434 P^r cent social (for "good 
times"), 434 per cent devoted to literature, 
music or art, S}/^ per cent industrial, 17 per cent 
predatory (for hunting, fighting, building, camp- 
ing, etc.) and 61 per cent athletic. It will be 
noted that physical activity is the keynote of 
by far the larger number — 863^ per cent, if we 
add the industrial to the predatory and athletic 
clubs. 

To capture the gang and not work against it, 
is to use it in the boy's social education, for 
some of the greatest lessons in loyalty, the 

» Swift, "Youth and the Race," p. 258. 



SOCIAL 87 

brotherhood of man, and idealism he learns in 
the school of the gang. A wise parent will pro- 
vide a place for the gang to meet. "He needs 
a room of his own,'* says Kirtley, "in his business 
of being a boy. If he does not get it at home 
he always wants to establish headquarters some- 
where else — on the street corner, or a vacant lot, 
or in another boy's home. His self-respect and 
social standing require that he have a place 
where he can bring his friends; if he brings them 
to his home, they will be in a respectable place 
and not be apt to get their relatives in trouble. 
He will be proud to have his parents become 
honorary or sustaining members of the Club; 
that will give those parents a chance to take the 
sting out of all mischief and renew the joys of 
long ago. His room is a social center, training 
him for life."* In the October, 1914, issue of the 
Mothers* Magazine is told a true story of how a 
boy of well-to-do parents was literally driven to 
evil companionship, because his parents refused 
to welcome his friends to their home. Several 
paragraphs are here quoted from the story. 
"When I was a boy of ten, my playmates were 
sons of well-to-do families in my little home 
city. Like myself they had their bicycles, their 
tennis courts, their ponies and dogs, and their 
parents dressed them in clothes of good quality. 

< Kirtley, "That Boy of Yours," p. 190. 



88 BOYOLOGY 

In my outdoor sports I had plenty of chums, 
but in mdoor amusements it was different. This 
was not my fault. I loved fun and study, and I 
liked to be with my boy friends and have them 
with me. Outdoors we were all chums, but we 
seldom met indoors, because my mother refused 
to let my boy friends visit my home, and, natu- 
rally enough, my invitations grew fewer and 
farther between, and finally vanished almost 
altogether. 

"My mother was opposed to parties, because, 
she said, they made too much work. They al- 
ways disturbed her furniture. . . . My mother's 
idea of the proper place for boys to play was 
on some vacant lot or in the barn — anywhere 
except in her house. She sacrificed me and my 
whole life on the altar of her painful neatness, 
and condenmed me to become an outcast and 
a criminal, rather than run the risk of having 
my boy friends and me scratch the varnish on 
some precious chair, or leave dust from our 
boots on her treasured carpet. 

"Home conditions were such that I gradually 
dropped out of the company of my earlier boy 
chums, and I began to go with boys of a lower 
grade in society, for I could not with relf-respect 
keep the company of boys who invited me to 
their homes and expected to be invited to mine.'* 

Then follows a tale that is heart-breaking. 



SOCIAL 89 

He and his new found gang were found guilty 
of stealing. He was sent to the State Reform 
School until he should be eighteen years of age. 
In stating the case the father said to the Judge: 
"For six months or more Jerry has been unman- 
ageable and wild; we have given him every oppor- 
tunity at home and done everything we could 
for his good, but I am convinced that strict 
discipline is all that can save him. We have 
given him the best of homes and he has had a 
nice room, good clothes and good books. We 
have read the Bible with him and tried to keep 
him home, but he hasn't shown a bit of appre- 
ciation. I came here to ask you to send Jerry 
to the Reform School until he is eighteen." 

"I have hated my father and mother since 
that moment." 

"During a wakeful, remorseful night at the 
police station, I had made up my mind that my 
father would pay my fine, that I would leave 
school, give up my bad companions, go to work 
and behave myself. My father's hard words, 
and the hard face he turned to me turned my 
heart to stone." This is a terrible indictment 
against house-keeping instead of home-making. 
When home becomes more than a house with 
four walls and a roof, and is a genuine social 
center, then there will be fewer true tales like 
this to tell. 



90 BOYOLOGY 

Have you ever thought of the family meal 
as a great socializing factor? At no one time 
does the family really come together except at 
the dining table. The gravest peril confronting 
our American homes is the passing away of the 
family life that had a place in its daily program 
for three meals, when there were not only good 
things to eat but also an opportunity to talk 
over current events and family interests. It 
is this inner social environment which shapes 
very vitally a boy's character. Luxuriously 
furnished hotel dining rooms and restaurants, 
quick lunch counters, and boarding houses can 
never be a substitute for or even meet the social 
needs to be found only in a home, be it ever 
so humble. 

Play forms a very large part in the social 
adjustment of boyhood. Van Dyke says, "If 
I can teach these boys to study and play to- 
gether, freely and with fairness to one another, 
I shall make them fit to live and work together 
in society.'* Play is not only the most vital 
thing about the boy, but also the most normal. 
It is a preparation for life. One of the laws 
in a social group in play is, "If I want to share 
with the rest I must do my share." Social 
initiative begins when a boy first feels his help- 
fulness in a common play or task, and it assumes 
constantly larger control with the coming of 



SOCIAL 91 

adolescence. It begins in games and with rules 
and plays that call for team work. If boys are 
"taught to submit to laws in their playing, love 
for law will enter into their souls." 

"The effect of play upon the boy's social 
nature is perhaps of even greater significance 
than its effect upon either his intellect or his body. 
It is the socializing instinct of the boy. By it 
he is perfectly revealed, for it shows his true 
self not only to those around him, but it is the 
best method of revealing to himself his own inner 
disposition and ability. By his play you shall 
know the boy, and through his play he comes 
best to know himself."^ 

Play teaches a boy loyalty, team work, co- 
operation, the philosophy of sacrifice, humility, 
respect for the rights of others, promptness, 
self-mastery, subordination to leadership, courage, 
and many other virtues necessary to make him 
a useful and worthy member of society. Lessons 
learned on the playground prepare for the serious- 
ness of the greater game of life itself, one phase 
of which is so vividly described by Henry New- 
bolt in his "Vital Lampada": 

"There's a breathless hush in the Close tonight — 
Ten to make and the match to win — 
A bumping pitch and a blinding light. 
An hour to play and the last man in. 

* Beck, "Marching Manward," p. 70. 



92 BOYOLOGY 

And it's not for the sake of a ribboned coat. 
Or the selfish hope of a season's fame. 

But his Captain's hand on his shoulder smote — 
*Play up! play up! and play the game!' 

"The sand of the desert is sodden red — 

Red with the wreck of a square that broke — 
The Gatling's jammed and the Colonel dead. 

And the regiment blind with dust and smoke. 
The river of death has brimmed his banks. 

And England's far, and Honor a name. 
But the voice of a schoolboy rallies the ranks: 

Tlay up! play up! and play the game!' 

**This is the word that year by year. 

While in her place the school is set. 
Every one of her sons must hear. 

And none that hears it dare forget. 
This they all with a joj'ful mind 

Bear through life like a torch in flame. 
And falling fling to the host behind — 

'Play up! play up! and play the game!' " 



Play and work are team mates in the business 
of socializing the boy. Altruism is no longer a 
vague ideal. The boy comes to a period in his 
life when he seeks definite forms of social service 
and wants to see results. "Give him respon- 
sibility; couple him up to the real work of social 
betterment; make him feel that he is a worker 
along with you toward the same ends, instead 
of being himself the object of your endeavor 



SOCIAL 9S 

— and you need not work to make a man of 
him. He will make a man of himself."® This 
new desire to be of service has given him a new 
sense of power. He has now definite recognition 
of social values. He feels the worth of unselfish- 
ness. He is glad to endure hardships and to 
make sacrifices for the sake of others. The 
secret of the success of the Phi Alpha Pi Fra- 
ternity which the author founded in 1903 is the 
following Covenant: 

"We believe the best and happiest life is the 
one spent not for self, but for others. With this 
for our ideal, we pledge our hearty loyalty to 
our fraternity and to its principles. We will 
be earnest seekers after truth, we will be friends 
not only to each other, but to all, and we will 
do our utmost to advance in true Christian man- 
hood. We will stand everywhere and always 
for purity and manliness, and strive to make 
our fraternity a power among the boys of (name 
city or town)." 

"Helping the Other Fellow," the motto of the 
fraternity, is the boy's definition of altruism. 
However, the natural esoteric instinct of adoles- 
cence, unless wisely directed, may become a dan- 
gerous social motive, as exhibited in many of 
the secret fraternities and sororities which have 
crept into the public high schools. Exclusiveness, 

« Weigle, "The Pupil and the Teacher," p. 63. 



94 BOYOLOGY 

snobbery, cliquishness seem to be marked charac- 
teristics of these social organizations. It is a 
perversion of the gang spirit, for, as somebody 
has said, "If you suppress a bad fraternity, you 
still have a bad gang/' The fact that a number 
of states have legislated these fraternities out of 
existence, and college fraternities have voted to 
exclude from membership those who were mem- 
bers of high school fraternities, is in itself a con- 
demnation of the principles upon which they are 
organized. High school fraternities and purely 
social organizations are responsible for what an 
educator calls "social inebriety" and parents are 
to blame for allowing boys and girls to take part 
in social affairs that destroy health and nerve 
force. 

When the social motive expresses itself in 
service for others, then society is made better 
and humanity receives an uphft. "No man liveth 
unto himself'*; we are indeed "Every one members 
one of another." The conscience of the older 
boy must be awakened to the duty of social 
betterment. To be doing something is the pas- 
sion of youth. One of the fundamental law^ of 
scouting is "To do a good turn each day." Baden- 
Powell writes: "The boy has a natural instinct 
for good if he only sees a practical way to exer- 
cise it, and this 'good turn' business meets it 
and develops it, and in developing it brings out 



SOCIAL 95 

the spirit of Christian charity toward his 
neighbor."^ 

Sociologists tell us that the highest form of 
cooperation is choral singing. It is perfect team 
work. Only as the members cooperate with 
each other will there be harmony and the product 
be beautiful. Glee Clubs may become an effective 
means of developing social cooperation among 
boys. "Singing is the most universal language, 
because it is the language of feeling. Piety, 
patriotism, all the social and domestic senti- 
ments and love of nature can be thus trained. 
Teachers of singing have drifted very far from 
the intent of nature in this respect. Love, home, 
war, religion, country, and rhythm generally, it 
is their first duty to perform in the heart. The 
merely technical process of reading notes is a 
small matter compared with the education of 
the sentiments. Their function is to direct a 
gymnastics of the emotions, to see that no false 
feelings are admitted, to open the soul to sympa- 
thy and social solidarity. . . . Melody, harmony, 
the dynamism of soft and loud, quality and 
cadence, are the purest epitome and vehicle of 
the higher moral qualities. . . . Song should ex- 
purgate every evil passion and banish care and 
fatigue. Even the Chinese call their crude music 
the science of sciences, and think harmony con- 

7 Scouting, November 1, 1914. 



96 BOYOLOGY 

nected with the function of government and 
the state; as Plato said, *a reform in music would 
mean a political revolution,' and Melanchthon 
called it the theology of the heart. . . . Aristotle 
said music molded character as gymnastics do 
the body."« 

Narrow-mindedness in a boy is sometimes due 
to shyness or drawing away from the society 
of others, sometimes to devotion to a few fellows 
of his own temperament. What he needs is 
social broadening, the meeting of people in vari- 
ous walks of life, of varying religious and political 
views, travel, and the experience of camping with 
other boys. A summer in a well-conducted boys' 
camp will do much to broaden his social horizon. 
By being placed among strange boys and men 
who do not look after his selfish comfort and 
cater to his whims as his mother often does, 
he is thrown upon his own resources and forced 
to become self-reliant and considerate of others. 
Scores of boys have returned home from camp, 
new men in every sense of the word. 

Life's real problems are social, its true values 
are those of personal relationship and leadership, 

for 

"It takes a soul 

To move a body; it takes a high-souled man 
To move the masses, even to a cleaner stye: 
It takes the ideal to blow a hair's breadth o£F 



8 HaU, "Adolescence," Vol. II, p. 31. 



SOCIAL 97 

The dust of the actual. Ah, your Fouriers failed 
Because not poets enough to understand 
That life develops from within." 

— Mbs. Browning — 
"Aurora Leigh," Book II. 



The social instincts bring a new sense of law. 
Conscience awakens. Right is conceived, no 
longer as from an external authority, but as 
resting upon inward grounds of obligation. 
Leadership of the gang becomes the stepping 
stone to leadership of the masses. Boys' ideals 
of altruism develop into service for country, 
home, and the church — Whence the great need of 
wise adult guidance during the plastic period 
of youth. Choice of companions, choice of books, 
choice of pictures, choice of music, choice of 
sports — all share in determining ideals which be- 
come the realities of manhood. Low ideals 
mean a low plane of living. High ideals mean 
a high plane of living. Society needs the leader- 
ship of men who have lofty ideals. These leaders 
are now in the making. Social instincts and 
impulses of boyhood must be harnessed to altru- 
istic service and worth-while action. The Church, 
as well as the home and the school, must realize 
that it is dealing with the future citizen who 
must be related to the ends of social endeavor, 
as well as a soul to be saved for eternity, for 



98 BOYOLOGY 

the only stuff in the world out of which you 
can make a man is boy stuff. 

"Give us men! 

Men from every rank! 

Fresh, and free, and frank; 
Men of thought and reading. 
Men of light and leading. 
Men of loyal breeding. 
Men of faith and not of faction. 
Men of lofty aim in action. 

Give us men — I say again. 
Give us men! 

"Give us men! 

Strong and stalwart ones; 
Men whom highest hope inspires. 
Men whom purest honor fires. 
Men who trample self beneath them. 
Men who make their country wreathe them. 

As her noble sons. 

Worthy of her sires! 
Men who never shame their mothers. 
Men who never fail their brothers. 
True, however false are others, 

Give us men — I say again. 
Give us men! 

"Give us men! 
Men who when the tempest gathers. 
Grasp the standards of their fathers. 

In the thickest fight; 
Men who strike for home and altar, 
(Let the coward cringe and falter,) 

God defend the right! 



SOCIAL 99 

True as truth, though lorn and lonely. 
Tender — as the brave are only; 
Men who tread where saints have trod. 
Men for country and their God; 

Give us men! I say again, again. 
Give us such men!" 

Bishop of Exetbb. 



CHAPTER V 

Moral Characteristics 

"life's more than breath and the quick round of blood; 
*Tis a great spirit and a busy heart. 
We live in deeds, not years; in thoughts, not breaths; 
In feelings, not figures on a dial. 

"We should count time by heart-throbs. He most lives 
Who thinks most, feels the noblest, acts the best." 

— Bailey. 

Action is one of the major laws of boyhood. 
The proper field for morals or moral sentiment 
is voluntary human action. Unwilled action has 
no moral quality. Activity is, to a very large 
degree, the test of intelligence. Morality is a 
growth from within, rather than anything that 
can be put on from without. 

Development is an uphill process. The strug- 
gle between the higher and the lower is a war- 
fare in which every boy must engage. 

"When the fight begins within himself, 

Man's worth something. God stoops o'er his head; 

Satan looks up between his feet. Both tug: 

He's left himself the middle; the soul awakes 

and grows." 

— Browning. 

100 



MORAL ioi 

"As soon as the activities of any being be- 
come acts for ends, they have moral quality. 
Non-moral action is action on the plane of mere 
instinct or impulse, where consideration plays 
no part." 

"It is the consideration, or the end aimed 
at, that makes an act morally good or morally 
bad. An act directed toward a bad end is im- 
moral, though ignorance of its badness on the 
part of the boy may modify our judgment of 
his character. Similarly, action for any good 
end is moral action, though the character of 
the boy be only partly expressed therein.'*^ 

Early childhood is especially the period of 
sensuous growth, and early adolescence the 
period of deep moral and religious questionings. 
"To train a boy in the science of numbers, and 
not to teach him that he is not to make false 
combinations; to train him in the art of writing 
and not to teach him that he is not to forge his 
employer's name; to train him in the secrets 
of chemistry and not to train him to respect 
his hidden and mysterious power over the life and 
welfare of his fellows; to give him intellectual 
judgment only, and not to train moral judg- 
ment,'* says Robson, "would be an abomination 
and curse to the world. "^ 



1 Coe, "Religious Education," Vol. Ill, p. 161. 
« Robson, "Religious Education," 1905, p. 239. 



102 BOYOLOGY 

Early boyhood, say from eight to twelve years 
of age, is really the formative period in the 
acquirement of moral distinctions. When the 
boy reaches the turning point, the teen period, 
profound changes in mental as well as physical 
functions take place and he enters the final 
* 'finishing period, ' ' that precedes maturity. Moral 
sensibiUties are now quickened, and moral con- 
trol is needed. When he was a child, fear kept 
him many times from doing wrong, because of 
the i>enalty; this was negative, but as he grows 
older, observation teaches him that there are 
not only bad acts attended with pain, but that 
good acts are expected and recognized or ap- 
proved. In this way feelings are aroused, and 
moral sentiment formed, as well as moral 
judgment. 

Moral character can be interpreted in terms 
of tendencies to conduct, and to develop char- 
acter means to develop the various capacities 
that control or govern conduct. These controls 
may be roughly grouped in three classes: First, 
instinctive control, or inborn tendencies toward 
certain types of conduct. The moral instincts 
are indefinite and modifiable. They impel boys 
to form ideals and to feel obligations, but what 
particular ideals they shall have or what obliga- 
tions they shall feel is left to be determined by ex- 
perience. Conscience needs to be educated. Second, 



\ 

MORAL 103 

habit-control, or automatic tendencies that are 
consciously acquired and then through repetition 
reduced to an automatic or unconscious basis. 
It is here where emphasis must be laid. Third, 
Judgment-control, or ideas, standards, and prej- 
udices that consciously direct human conduct 
in situations to which habit and instinct are 
inadequate. This period is during the age of 
from sixteen to nineteen years. 

Harold Begbie in "Twice Born Men" says, 
"Life without conscience becomes a destroying 
animalism, and conscience without religion has 
neither force nor justification for its restraint." 
Granting that religion is the basis of all morals, 
we will confine ourselves, however, in this chap- 
ter to a presentation of the moral characteristics 
of boyhood and leave the religious characteris- 
tics for a future chapter. 

The aim of moral instruction is to teach the 
boy to know, to live, and to do right. Character 
is organic. The virtues must be built into our 
very system. "Sometimes eyestrain reacts upon 
the moral nature, and, if not relieved, may re- 
sult in a permanently perverted disposition. 
Boys become irritable, capricious, obstinate, bad, 
because of physical weakness. A pair of glasses 
may often prove a means of grace. "^ Many 
moral weaknesses are traceable to physical 

» Fisher, "Physical Education," Vol. IV, p. 397. 



104 BOYOLOGY 

causes. Health is wholeness or holiness of body. 
Flabby muscles usually make for flabby morals, for 
muscles are definitely related to feelings. Muscles 
are the organs of the will. Poise, control, and 
deep feeling are intimately related with strong 
muscle. Moral energy has its root in feeling, 
and without this a boy is not stirred to action. 

When a boy loses control of himself, you have 
an exhibition of anger and passion which leads 
to abuse and intolerance, pathways of control 
are established through the nervous system and 
a bad habit is formed. Long continued action 
of the right sort will result in controlled im- 
pulses, instincts, and emotions. "A moral ad- 
vance is only made when a thing is actually 
done," says Prof. Butler, "and a new pathway 
of discharge made in us." "We learn to swim 
by swimming, not by studying charts and dia- 
grams and mathematical demonstrations. We 
learn the Ten Commandments by keeping them, 
not by committing them to memory." Stand- 
ards of right doing are not established by pre- 
cept but by right living. Rugby boys in the day 
of Dr. Arnold were known by their moral thought- 
fulness. Personality is woven into the very fiber 
of morals, and it was Dr. Arnold*s own life of 
sympathetic thoughtfulness, rather than his pre- 
cepts, which really inspired the boys of Rugby to 
be and to live their best. 



MORAL 105 

While all boys have a moral conscience, yet 
what is right and what is wrong must be taught 
to them the same as other facts. The best 
place to teach morals is in the home, but unfor- 
tunately modern home conditions are such that 
the moral training of boys is complex and diflS- 
cult. Moral obligation or "oughtness'* is essential 
in creating moral sentiment. Moral law, unlike 
the law of the state and other laws, is not im- 
posed upon us by external authority, but by 
self. It is internal and is expressed by "be this" 
and not "do this." Thus a boy becomes the 
agent of his own conduct. "Moral law is distinct 
from civil law. It is wider in its application 
and loftier in its aims. Many things may be 
legally right which are morally wrong. . . . The 
moral law deals with motives or intentions, the 
civil law with actions. You can enforce physical 
actions by physical compulsion, but you cannot 
thus compel conviction and belief. The civil 
law in days gone by compelled a man to go to 
church, but it could not compel him to believe."* 

It is during the middle teen period of boy- 
hood, when thoughtfulness and reasoning are 
maturing, that there is often a serious break 
between the ideals and beliefs of childhood and 
those of approaching maturity, as well as serious 
breaks between the boy and his parents. Morals 

* Dexter and Garlick, "Psychology in the Schoohoom," p. 270. 



106 BOYOLOGY 

can no longer be "driven" or "nagged" into 
him, they must now express themselves from 
within outward. He now becomes the general 
manager of his own moral conduct. The moral 
nature, which is inborn, is now coming to its 
own, and the boy recognizes not only a personal 
standard of morals, but a common standard of 
morals as well, and that there are obligations 
which he cannot lightly brush aside. "The 
adolescent period brings a greater sensitiveness 
to social relations, which gives the basis for a 
more direct interest in moral relations." While 
parents and teachers may instruct, yet the boy 
must by experience work out his own ideas and 
translate them into self-governing laws. The 
initiative must come from within. Knowledge 
of a moral law is non-effective unless there is 
energizing power or driving force within the boy 
to enforce and obey it. "The function of desire 
in the moral life," says John Dewey, "is to arouse 
energy and stimulate the means necessary to 
accomplish the realization of ends otherwise 
purely theoretical or esthetic." If the early 
training of the boy has been sane and whole- 
some, the appeal of conscience, which has been 
defined as "reason concerned with moral issues," 
will be obeyed. "When I was a child, I talked 
like a child, felt like a child, reasoned like a child : 
when I became a man, I put from me childish 

/ 



MORAL 107 

ways." (1 Cor. 13:11.) Becoming a man, or 
crossing the threshold into the long-desired 
Canaan or "Manland" is a period which every 
boy longs for and eagerly anticipates. 

During this period respect and affection will 
serve as powerful restraints against wrong con- 
duct, rather than "nagging," "scolding," or even 
rewards and prizes. Appeal constantly to his 
highest motives and ideals. Obedience may be 
taught without a code of "don'ts" and pro- 
hibitions, for a boy is not a "sort of croquet 
ball that must be forced through certain wickets 
by the insistent use of the mallet of authority, 
which expresses itself in Don't."^ Let a father 
share the life of obedience with his boy. The 
firm of "Father and Son" should now be estab- 
lished upon a definite basis, a firm dealing in 
everything that equips for physical, social, men- 
tal, moral, and religious manliness. This new 
situation of cooperative partnership in life making, 
may mean a serious readjustment in living on 
the part of the senior member of the firm, for 
the junior member will require skilful handling, 
but the father who can keep in step with his 
boy will never experience the pain of the ever- 
widening gap which many fathers find between 
themselves and their boys. 

Wundt classifies standard regulations, moral 

6 Beck, "Marching Manward," p. 92. 



108 BOYOLOGY 

principles, or maxims, into three groups, as 
follows : 

I. Principles relating to self — 

(1) So act as to preserve thy self-respect. 

(2) Fulfil all thy duties to others. 
n. Principles relating to Society — 

(1) Respect thy neighbor as thyself. 

(2) Serve the community in which thou 

livest. 
m. Principles relating to humanity — 

(1) Feel thyself to be an instrument in 

the service of the moral ideal. 

(2) Sacrifice thyself for the end thou 

hast recognized to be thine ideal 
task. 

"Out of these unchanging imperatives there 
grow all minor rules and maxims of life; from 
them we can deduce the relative validity of 
each, and explain all duties, ends, and mottoes. 
Here we can find the true meaning of the advice 
of Polonius to his son: 

"To thine own self be true. 
And it must follow, as the night the day. 
Thou canst not then be false to any man " 

for the self of every man is a social one, getting 
its significance from its relation to others. To 
be true to self, then, is to be true to the social 
self that society has created. Even the lower 



MORAL 109 

aspects of moral life are therefore dependent 
on the higher."® 

The youth always demands a rational basis 
for morality and it is the business of his home 
and his teachers to give him that basis. Throttled 
investigation and shackled thought have caused 
moral atrophy in many boys, particularly older 
ones. Work out carefully with the boy these 
principles of Wundt and help him to understand 
the reasonableness of living a moral life. 

This may be accomplished by instruction 
such as is suggested by the Moral Education 
League, London, England, which the author has 
taken the liberty of adapting to needs of boys. 

BOTS FROM 12 TO 14 TEARS: 

Cleanliness in person and clothing, in home, school and 
street, disease caused by uncleanliness, bad air, impure 
water, etc. 

Manners. Courtesy and respect toward all, decency 
and refinement of speech, sincerity in manners — avoidance 
of mere formality, thoughtfulness toward others, respect- 
fulness toward the aged, women and girls, table etiquette, 
politeness, punctuality, etc. 

Truthfulness in speech, in exactness, promises, con- 
fidence, love of truth for its own sake, danger of com- 
promising with error, its injurious eflFect on character, 
living for truth, readiness to receive new truths. 

Courage. Moral courage in speaking the truth, in 
enduring ridicule, and in being true to one's convictions, 
chivalry, devotion of the strong to the weak, manliness, 
heroism in the duties of every day life. Follow good 
example and resist bad example. 

Honesty in judging one's own conduct, in giving others 
their due, preserving and protecting property at home» 

« DeGanno, "Religious Education," 1904, p. 145. 



110 BOYOLOGY 

at school, in public parks, etc. In work: restoration of 
lost property, etc. 

Thrift. Money: its uses and abuses. Importance of 
economy in little things, time, energy, etc. Avoidance of 
extravagance, and wastefulness. Temperance a form of 
thrift. 

Order. The value of system. "A place for everything and 
everything in its place." Value of punctuality and prompt- 
ness. Evils of disorder in the home, school, and street. 

Perseverance. In work: hard and distasteful tasks, 
mastery gained in perseverance. In play: in fighting out 
a lost game. In forming good habits and overcoming bad 
ones. In self-improvement. In well-doing. 

Justice. The love of justice; the resolve to be just 
to others, even when public opinion is against us. Mercy. 
Just and unjust relations between employers and em- 
ployed; between government and peoples. The rights of 
animals. 

Generosity. Forgiveness, remembering our own faults. 
Forbearance. Charitableness in thought. Rejoicing at 
another's success. 

The Family. What we owe to the home. Duties to- 
ward parents. Relations between brothers and sisters. 
*'Give and take." Mutual service in the home, politeness 
and consideration in dealing with servants. 

Social Organization. Individual and collective owner- 
ship. Responsibilities of ownership. Care of our clothes, 
books, etc. Respect for the rights of others. Coopera- 
tion in the home, in trade, in professions, between citi- 
zens, etc. 

Patriotism. Love of country; national emblems. Duty 
we owe to our country; how we may serve our country. 
Law and order. 

Work. Pride in thorough work. Use of leisure time. 
The value of work in overcoming difficulties, etc. 

Boys fhom 14 to 16 years: 

Self-respect. Honoring the best that is in us. Impor- 
tance of self-respect in act, word, and thought. Self- 
respect undermined by servility and eye service. Regard 
for self-respect of others. Moral dangers that follow any 
loss of self-respect. "Toadyism" and snobbishness. The 
need for a higher standard of self-respect. 



MORAL 111 

Justice. In judging others to make allowance for 
temperament, and for their ignorance, temptations, and 
prejudices. To redress wrongs and champion the right. 
A knowledge of magistrates, their duties and respon- 
sibilities. Courts of justice: their constitutions, value, 
and limitations. Equality of all before the law. 

Work. The necessity for and dignity of labor. Hum- 
drum work. Systematic and strenuous labor, its bracing 
effect — physical, intellectual, and moral; the demoraliz- 
ing effect of idleness. Earning a living; responsibilities 
and social value of different pursuits. The wealth of the 
country: how it is produced. Work as a sure expression 
of the worker's character. 

Thrift. Forethought enables us to provide for unfore- 
seen events and difficulties, strengthens independence, 
promotes self-improvement, and enables us to advance 
worthy causes. 

The Will. The training of the will. The right to be 
done intelligently. Moral laziness, indecision, putting off, 
gradual deterioration. 

Patriotism. The vote, its nature and responsibilities; 
the ballot. The machinery of government and the duty 
of the individual citizen. True patriotism, devotion to 
our country's highest interests. America's greatness and 
her obligations to other nations. 

Peace and War. Duty of citizens when war threatens: 
control of passions and avoidance of panic. War, when 
justifiable; self-defense against aggression. In support 
of oppressed peoples. The evils of war. The value 
of peace. 

Recreation. The need for recreation and pastimes. 
Games as an outlet for friendly rivalry and emulation. 
Value of play as a socializing factor. Hobbies. The 
development of the body and its powers. **A sound mind 
in a sound body." The value of athletics in developing 
character; playing the game. Danger of giving too much 
thought to athletics. Sports, beneficial and injurious; 
avoidance of cruelty. 

The Development of Personal Relationships. Children and 
parents, brothers and sisters, other relatives. Friendship, 
choice of friends, loyalty and candor in friendship, com- 
radeship. The duty of understanding those outside our 
own circle. 



112 BOYOLOGY 

Temperance in Drink. Physiological effects of alcohol. 
Effects of intemperance on the body, character, and 
career. Effects of intemperance on the home, on society 
— e. g., lunacy and crime. Value of temperance in all 
things. The same treatment in regard to tobacco. 

Honesty. In business: mutual confidence essential. In 
social and public life. Bribes and secret commissions in 
commercial life. Honest service for wages paid; fair pay 
for honest work. Profession and practice. 

Conscience. The claim of conscience, individual and 
social. The enlightenment of conscience; the letter and the 
spirit of the moral law. The development of conscience. 

Humanity. Personal obligation to help the old, young, 
weakly, unfortunate, oppressed. Love for mankind; its 
inspiring power, self-sacrifice. 

Boys fbom 16 to 19 tears: 

The Family. How the separateness of the family has 
intensified human feeling; joy and sorrow in the home. 
Restraints of the home, their wholesomeness and obliga- 
tions. Family pride and family honor; love of home. 
The duties which members of the family owe to their 
wider community, e. g., neighbors, locality, state. 

Social Organization. Economic necessity for industrial 
combinations; collective bargaining. Responsibilities of 
industrial combinations. Origin and usefulness of capital. 
Trades unions: scope and work, power and danger. Im- 
portance of a high standard in public opinion; what each 
can do to secure it. Municipal and state ownership and 
enterprise. 

Cleanliness. As a type of moral purity — thought, 
word, deed. 

Honor. Pledges, promises, confidence, fidelity. False 
ideas of honor: duelling, menial work, etc. Acting honor- 
ably under the influence of anger, in the midst of heated 
contest, and while engaged in competition. 

Peace and War. Aggression: its injustice and evil con- 
sequences. International relations; how nations can help 
each other. The value of arbitration. 

Patriotism. The sacrifice of individual to national 
interests; national heroes and reformers. Respect for 
the nationalities of other peoples. The evolution of so^ 
ciety; the ideal state. 



MORAL 113 

The Development of Social Relationship. The instinct of 
sociability in insects, birds, and animals, leading to — mu- 
tual protection, social services. Exemplified by tribal 
savages, barbarians, village communities, ancient and 
medieval cities. How tribes and states coalesced into 
nations. International Brotherhood: the interdependence 
and solidarity of the human race. 

Self-regard and Social Service. The two fundamental 
instincts in animal and human nature: self-preservation 
and mutual aid. Duties of self-regard and self -develop- 
ment. Dependence of the state on the character of its 
individual citizens. The value of social service to the 
individual who performs it. Dependence of individual 
welfare on the prosperity and good order of the community 
or State; the existence and security of private property 
dependent upon protection by the State and laws. 

The Will. The duty of educating the will; the value 
of self-denial in little things. Persistence in right-doing; 
firmness in resisting temptations. Devotion to noble 
aims; strength, beauty, and nobility of character. 

Recreation. The use and abuse of social entertain- 
ments, dancing, theaters, etc. The enjoyment of the 
beauties of nature, music, and the arts. The pleasure 
of reading. The recreative study of science. Making 
the means of enjoyment generally accessible. 

Toleration. Respect for the opinions and religious be- 
liefs of others. Respect for all sincere opponents. The 
duty of examining into the views of others. Distinction 
between toleration and indifference. The growth of 
toleration. Magnanimity. 

Betting and Gambling. Factitious excitement. Dis- 
honesty of gaining money without giving real value. 
The demoralizing effects of betting and gambling on 
character. The disastrous effects of betting and gam- 
bling on sports, the home, and national life. 

Responsibility of Older Boys. To prevent bullying or 
teasing. To put down evil talk. To organize games, 
recreations, etc., for younger boys. To enforce school 
rules, moral laws, etc. Example of older boy more in- 
fluential than precepts of adults. The far reaching future 
effects of the influence of older boys for good or for evil. 

Ideals. The value of an ideal for life; the choice of 
a calling. The danger of accepting the average standard 



114 BOYOLOGY 

of good as the best. The growth of our ideal; childhood, 
youth, etc. Perfection of character. Growth of social 
ideals; a perfected humanity. Growth of religious ideals; 
a perfected life. The retrospect of a noble life. 

This syllabus of moral instruction can only 
be of value in helping the boy in developing 
moral characteristics, when used in a tactful 
and wise manner, and not in a dry, mechanical 
manner. Moral color-blindness, and low moral 
admirations, can only be eliminated from boys 
through the "expulsive power of a new afiFection." 
Character depends partly upon moral perception 
or insight, partly upon habit. 

"Doth not the soul the body sway? 
And the responding plastic clay 
Receive the impress every hour 
Of the pervading spirit's power? 

"Look inward if thou wouldst be fair: 
To beauty guide the feelings there. 
And this soul-beauty, bright and warm. 
Thy outward being will transform." 

— Bertha Hasseltine. 

An act of good moral character should receive 
its return of honor. "Humanity," says Colin 
A. Scott, "is almost instinctively ready to 
oblige, to serve and to receive honor from those 
really felt to be on a higher level. And . . . when 
those who are looked up to by others receive 
a service without returning honor and admira- 



MORAL 115 

tion . . . they are meanly and proudly attempting 
a fraud upon human nature. If the Good Samar- 
itan cared nothing for the feelings that would 
be awakened in the traveler to Jericho, but 
was only serving God, he missed the point." 
It is this failure of recognition of the good within 
the boy on the part of older people which has 
discouraged many older boys and made them 
indifferent to the appeal of the best. 

"The responsiveness of the soul and body in 
the domain of morals is a law of our nature, in 
which are consequences of the greatest moment. 
The soul can be corrupted by the body and the 
body by the soul." As a boy thinketh in his 
heart so is he, therefore the mental association 
with everything that is pure and wholesome, 
means living up to one's best. Dr. Philip S. 
Moxom in his "Moral Education" says: "It is 
a greater and more difficult thing to live, in the 
true, deep sense, than it is to get a living. Boys 
must be made to feel and then to see that honesty 
is better than brilliancy, that integrity is more 
than riches, that good character is a prize val- 
uable beyond the power of all material means 
to measure. ... A clever intellect without a ten- 
der conscience makes a Mephistopheles. We are 
seeking to make men who shall know their duty 
to the world, and have the will to do it. That 
is an end to call forth our deepest wisdom and 



11« BOYOLOGY 

our strongest endeavors. On the achievement 
of that end depends the soundness and permanent 
prosperity of the nation." Let us see the man 
in the boy. 

"In the acorn is wrapped the forest. 

In the little brook, the sea; 
The twig that will sway with the sparrow today 

Is tomorrow's tree. 
There is hope in a mother's joy. 

Like a peach in its blossom furled. 
And a noble boy, a gentle boy. 

And a manly boy, is king of the world. 

**The power that will never fail us 
Is the soul of simple truth; 
The oak that defies the stormiest skies 

Was upright in its youth. 
The beauty no time can destroy 

In the pure, young heart is furled; 
And a worthy boy, a tender boy, 

A faithful boy, is king of the world." 

— Geoeqe Shepabd Bubleigh. 



CHAPTER VI 

Religious Characteristics 

"You hear that boy laughing? You think he's all fun; 
But the angels laugh, too, at the good he has done." 
— Oliver Wendell Holmes — The Boys. 

Underneath the fun and mischief, noise and 
dirt of a boy, beats a heart that responds quickly 
to the appeal of religion, especially if the appeal 
is in the form of doing rather than being. Re- 
ligion to a boy means motive power to give up 
wrong and do right. The Sunday school was 
singing, *T want to be an angel and with the 
angels stand," when Billy's teacher discovered 
that he was not singing. "Why aren't you 
singing, Billy.^" asked the teacher. "I'm sing- 
ing the way I feel," responded honest Billy. 
Being an angel did not appeal to Billy, and he 
refused to tell an untruth even in his singing. 
What Billy wanted to be was a man, a red- 
blooded man of heroic action, and not a cherub. 
Rehgion to a boy is not sitting still and being 
good, it is doing worth-while deeds. Somehow 
a boy resents being called good, and many times 
he is the other kind of hypocrite in that he 
117 



118 BOYOLOGY 

would have you believe he was bad when really 
not bad. He is the victim of modern discus- 
sions, in which people seem to feel sorry for 
the boy who is not a tough or a delinquent. 
The delinquent seems to get the attention, the 
kind words, and the flowers, while the really 
first-class boy who lives a normal wholesome 
life of right doing is passed by. It is the "lonely" 
age when the religious emotion instinct is at 
its height. His heart is hungry for the best, 
but he doesn't always know when or how to 
find it, and therefore he attracts attention by 
bluffing badness. The eariy adolescent age, be- 
tween the ages of twelve and sixteen, is the 
period of misunderstanding, the time when sym- 
pathy, love, patience, hopefulness, and firmness 
are required from those who are responsible 
for him. 

"Ideas of Gk)d and duty and religious ob- 
servance have been external to the child during 
his eariier days, but now they take root in his 
life and have a vital significance. Heretofore 
they have been embodied in precept or custom 
in his own playful imagination. Now they 
have begun to be his own."^ 

His "clarification," as Starbuck terms it, occurs 
around thirteen years of age when rehgious 
"forms" begin to lose attraction and the desire 

1 Starbuck, "The Psychology of Religion," p. 196. 



RELIGIOUS 119 

for spiritual life deepens. The religious awaken- 
ing seems to supplement puberty. Stature in- 
creases, "then muscular strength increases; new 
interests, new passions arise, new dangers, of 
course; and it is the time of greatest prevalence 
in the line of crime. Later statistics show that 
before the close of the years of adolescence most 
of the crimes are committed — not the deepest 
and darkest crimes, but the most. So that it 
seems as though good and evil struggle together 
for the mastery of the human soul at no other 
time of life so much as at this time."^ Statis- 
tics also show that if conversion has not occurred 
before twenty, the chances are small that it 
ever will be experienced; that the age of deepest 
religious conviction is between twelve and four- 
teen years; the age of conversion between sixteen 
and eighteen years and the age of imiting with 
the Church is around sixteen years. 

When we know that eleven men imited with 
the Church between the ages of ten and twenty- 
five to every one that united with the Church 
outside these years, when we know that hardly 
thirty per cent of the Sunday school enrolment 
is made up of boys and young men in their 
teens, then we begin to recognize the need of 
giving our best thought and effort to discover- 
ing the cause of these conditions, and earnestly 

* Hall, "Principles of Religious Education," p. 182. 



120 BOYOLOGY 

seeking a remedy. One way of changing this 
condition is by the establishment of higher 
standards of teacher requirements which will 
enlist men who will pay the price of this par- 
ticular kind of leadership, for leadership of this 
type costs more than a mere desire and a sym- 
pathetic attitude. The standard set by G. 
Stanley Hall is not beyond reach when he says 
"our churches are coming to realize now as 
never before that ... it requires higher talent, 
greater capacity, more genius, more full mastery 
of knowledge to teach children than adults. . . . 
Mastery in the knowledge of religion, sympathy 
with Christ, that makes us reaUy interested in 
His mind and will, is best tested by capacity 
to lead and minister to childhood."^ 

K reUgion, as Dr. Liddon defines it, is "personal 
communion with God, yielding fruit in action, 
or the bringing spiritual sanction to bear on 
ordinary life," then we cannot begin too early 
to teach reUgion as a motive power in a boy's 
life. This cannot be done in the phraseology 
and formulas of the pulpit, but through tact 
and sympathy which will see instuictively how 
to catch the impressionable moments in a boy*s 
life, and then in a few words, to engrave upon 
the mind the thought of a high ideal and the 
greatness of living a Christ-controlled life. "Boys 

3 Hall, "Principles of Religious Education," p. 189. 



RELIGIOUS 121 

and grandmothers,'* says Kirtley, "have the 
same religion, even as they may eat the same 
food at the same table. But in her that food 
reappears in a bent body, soft, babylike flesh, 
beautiful grey hair, and extensive wrinkles, 
while in him it becomes an erect body, knotted 
muscles, stubby hair, and smooth skin. They 
get their religion in the same way — the same 
loving Father, the same gracious Saviour, the 
same instructing and inspiring Bible, but in 
one it reappears as grandmother, in the other 
as boy."^ Too long we have been looking for an 
adult type of religious expression in the boy 
instead of a natural boy expression. A boy has 
a hunger for God as he has for food and friends 
and fun, but he does not always know what 
it means or how to express himself. Objective 
righteousness is the thing he is looking for and 
which we must help him find. Religion to him 
is a life rather than a philosophy. Boys are 
the greatest radicals and at the same time the 
greatest conservatives on earth. 

The instinct of worship is inherent in the 
instincts of the human race. Oiu* ancestors 
worshipped and we inherit, by a race impulse, 
a powerful tendency toward religion. All men 
from the lowest to the highest have been seekers 
after God. Plutarch says: "I have seen people 

* Kirtley, "That Boy of Yours," p. 240. 



122 BOYOLOGY 

without cities and organized governments or 
laws, but people without shrines and deities I 
have not seen," and Ratzel says: "We cannot 
analyze a single race on its spiritual side with- 
out laying bare the germs and rootfires of re- 
ligion. Ethnography knows no race devoid of 
reUgion.** 

A boy passes through three stages in the 
evolution of religious expression. The first stage, 
up until about twelve years of age, is the im- 
pressionistic period. Grod is a venerable man 
seated in the clouds or upon a great throne, 
and heaven is a beautiful garden or a golden 
city. He has definite ideas of that which later 
becomes vague and mystical. It is the period 
when he unquestionably accepts statements by 
those whom he trusts. His faith in the great- 
ness and goodness of God, and his dependence 
upon Him is unshakable. His religion is pure, 
simple, and real. His first impression of prayer 
which came to him as he kneeled by his mother's 
side in the quiet of his bedroom and as he saw 
her bowed head, and heard her reverent tone 
of voice, never can be erased from memory's 
page. Here the training of faith begins. It 
is the mother's opportunity to begin to impress 
upon him the great truth that behind all visible 
manifestations of life is a great invisible Power. 
"Science may call it Force; Art may call it 



RELIGIOUS 193 

Harmony; Philosophy may call it World Order; 
various religions have called it God, but Chris- 
tianity calls it *Our Father.' " Says Mrs. Harri- 
son: "This is an important moment in his life, 
the first groping after the unseen. Are not 
the great, the powerful, the lasting things of 
life all invisible? Turning to nature for illustra- 
tions, we find the great attractive and repulsive 
forces have thrown up the vast mountain ranges 
and cleft them in twain; gravitation has settled 
their crumbling fragments into level plains, and 
caused the water courses to sweep in given 
directions; capillary attraction has drawn the 
water up into the seed cells and caused plant 
life to germinate and vegetation to cover the 
plains; chemical action and assimilation have 
changed vegetable and animal food into human 
blood; appetites have caused the human being 
to seek food and shelter and the opportunity to 
propagate his kind; parental instinct has given 
rise to family life; public sentiment has maintained 
the sanctity of the marriage tie and the safety 
of family possessions; business credit has made 
trade life possible; patriotism has banded these 
communities of civic life into national life; 
religion is yet to unify the nations of the earth 
into one common brotherhood. All these are 
invisible forces. What is the tribute paid to 
character over and above wealth and beauty, but 



124 BOYOLOGY 

a tribute to the unseen? Without friendship, 
sympathy, love, aspiration, ideality, what would 
life be worth?"^ "First impressions are the root- 
fibers of the child's understanding, which is 
developed later," says Froebel. 

The boy naturally evolves from the first stage 
into the second, the p>eriod when through nature 
he learns to find God as the ever-living Creator 
and Ruler of the Universe. The very beauty 
and grandeur of nature reveal the character 
of God, for, says Martin Luther, "God writes 
the gospel not in the Bible alone, but in trees 
and flowers and clouds and stars." At Camp 
Becket, the writer's laboratory, is a "Chapel- 
by-the-Lake," 

"A Cathedral, boundless as our wonder. 
Whose quenchless lamps the sun and moon supply. 
Its choirs the winds and waves, its organ thunder. 
Its dome the sky," 

where hundreds of boys have experienced the 
nearness of God through the mysterious touch 
of the wind, or through gazing at the towering 
mountains with their suggestion of strength, or 
in the very quietness of the eventide. 

A camp fire becomes a mighty factor in the 
development of a boy's rehgious life. Not only 
may great moral lessons be taught as boys, with 
the charm of fire-gazing in their faces, sit around 

* Mrs. Harrison, "A Study of Child Nature," p. 194. 



RELIGIOUS 125 

the crackling wood, but through the fire is 
symbolized the purification and refining process 
of life. "Tried as by fire." Fire was the emblem 
of the gift of the Holy Spirit. It is the stim- 
ulant of the imagination. Camping should have 
as its great objective that of leading boys "through 
nature to nature's God." 

"Nature worship," says Prof. Fiske, "is often 
an important stage in the natural religion of 
early boyhood. The growing love for the beau- 
tiful in form and color, added to the sense of the 
mystical, centers the child admiration in the 
world of nature which God has made so beau- 
tiful. Particularly strong is this religious im- 
pulse in early springtime in normal childhood 
in the country. As the miracle of the spring 
resurrection returns, the healthy boy often finds 
keen delight in his real communion with nature. 
Daily he consults her oracles, listens to her 
secrets, and worships at her shrine. The Heav- 
enly Father has many wonderful lessons to 
teach the growing boy just at this time, and 
unless the boy has a chance to learn them, his 
imagination is never again so strong, his sense 
of the beautiful dwindles and with it much of 
the aesthetic power which should enrich his heart 
life with the poet's vision and the artist's per- 
spective and proportion. Just now with a mi- 
croscope you may help the boy to find God. 



126 BOYOLOGY 

The larger aspects of nature, as well as the more 
minute, have their grand messages for the boy 
soul. Renan has reminded us that the clouds 
and the thunder and the mountains had a vast 
influence in shaping the religious ideas of the 
Hebrews. ... It is from the grandeur of nature 
that we learn the majesty of God. While the 
clouds lure the boy's imagination through sky 
pastures of riotous fancy and suggest to him 
the boundless riches of space, it is from the 
mountains he learns his littleness and from the 
thunder he learns his weakness. Both suddenly 
teach him to be humble in the presence of their 
sublimity."* 

Around fourteen years of age he evolves into 
the third stage, which, for the want of a better 
term, may be called the ethical stage. There 
now comes a great longing for a larger spiritual 
life, which must find its expression in aspira- 
tions, longings, adoration, service, the Knights 
of King Arthur or the Sir Galahad period. He 
is beginning to outgrow his egoism and selfishness 
and his interests broaden. We must be careful 
now that religion does not become a mere habit, 
or automatic, or a dead formalism. 

Personal loyalty and hero worship are in the 
ascendency. He is searching for a great leader. 
"The only religion which will appeal to him is 

" Fiflke, "Boy Life and Self Government," p. 249. 



RELIGIOUS 127 

one of heroism, endurance, and of powerful, 
lofty, and masterful personality." "His king," 
says Prof. Tyler, "must be presented to his 
mind as stronger as well as better than he, and 
as altogether worthy of his unswerving loyalty, 
obedience, and service. He will have no other. "^ 
Here is the supreme opportunity of the teacher 
as well as parent to encourage the boy in his 
natural decision to yield his loyalty and devo- 
tion to Jesus Christ, the world's greatest hero. 
His religious awakening is natural, and should 
not be repressed but given opportxmity for ex- 
pression. Conscience is now becoming his guide. 
To make conscience robust instead of morbid 
and hypersensitive is the real problem. Help 
him develop a healthy outward glance, take 
advantage of his undaunted courage and ambi- 
tion. The very audacity of his faith and the 
belief in his ability to do big things should be 
recognized as an asset rather than a liability. 
Now is the time for him to harness to worth- 
while activities, this inner feeling for functioning 
and this desire for expression in service. "It 
is the epoch of the reign, not of cold judgment, 
but of feeling and of the heart, 'out of which 
are the issues of life.' Paul, places love, with 
faith and hope, far above knowledge, which 
Vanisheth away, for we know in part.' Perhaps 

7 Tyler, "Growth and Education," p. 185. 



128 BOYOLOGY 

Paul was right after all. The heart is often 
fully as wise as the head. Do not undervalue 
or curb too closely his generous impulses."® 

Naturally conversion follows his spontaneously 
religious awakening, as statistics show conclusively 
that "storm and stress" and conviction are close 
kin. "If there is no resistance to the great 
expenditure of the new energy, then results a 
burst of life, fresh consciousness and apprecia- 
tion of truth, a personal hold on virtue, joy and 
the sense of well being; but if there is no channel 
open for its free expression, it wastes itself 
against imyielding and imdeveloped faculties, and 
is recognized by its pain accompaniment, distress, 
unrest, anxiety, heat of passion, groping after 
something, brooding, and self-condemnation. This 
stage of adolescence is the j>eriod of most rapid 
physiological readjustments, and consequently is 
characterized by great instability."^ 

The wonderful narrative of the facts concern- 
ing the Welsh Revival by the late W. T. Stead, 
who was at the time the editor of the London 
Review of Reviews is significant. In it he gave 
to the public for the first time the account of 
his own conversion in 1859 at the age of eleven 
years. 

He tells how one night in bed he was seized 

8 Tyler, "Growth and Education," p. 187. 

9 Starbuok, "The Psychology of Religion," p. 227. 



RELIGIOUS 129 

with an appalling sense of his own sinfulness. 
He sobbed and cried in the darkness over his 
wrong-doing. Then there came to him a pas- 
sionate longing to escape from condemnation and 
be forgiven. At last his mother overheard him, 
took him into her arms, and told him comfort- 
ing things about the love of God, and how it 
was made manifest by Jesus Christ, who had 
suffered in our stead, to save us from condemna- 
tion and make us heirs of heaven. Mr. Stead 
says: "I have no remembrance of anything be- 
yond the soothing caress of my mother's words. 
When she left me the terror had gone, and I 
felt sufficiently tranquil to go to sleep." A year 
later when he was twelve, his experience at 
Silcoates Hall, a private boarding school, is 
interesting, when a half dozen of the boys met 
each day in a summer-house in the garden, 
to read a chapter, and pray. Again, quoting his 
words, he says: "Suddenly one day, after the 
prayer-meeting had gone on for a week or two, 
there seemed to be a sudden change in the at- 
mosphere. How it came about no one ever 
knew. All that we did know was that there 
seemed to have descended from the sky, with 
the suddenness of a drenching thunder-shower, 
a spirit of intense, earnest seeking after God, 
for the forgiveness of sins, and the consecration 
to his service. How well I remember the solemn 



130 BOYOLOGY 

hush of that memorable day and night, m the 
course of which forty out of the fifty lads pub- 
licly professed conversion." 

A few days after reading this account there 
came in my mail a letter from a boy who 
had just reached his sixteenth birthday, a boy 
who had tasted sin in all its hideousness, even, 
for a few hours, behind prison bars. He was 
at a meeting which I conducted in the city 
where he lived, and after a struggle he made 
the decision to accept Jesus Christ as his Saviour 
and Friend. For about ten days he succeeded 
nobly but in a moment of weakness he sought 
the old gang and was back in the old ways. On 
his birthday I wrote him a letter. This was 
his reply: 

"My dear Friend: 

I was much surprised and very pleased to 
hear from you today. Your letter came just in 
time to strengthen the decision I had come to 
last week. Being inspired by the conference 
meetings to win the fight and become one of 
Jesus Christ's own boys. . . . You ask me in your 
letter to go to my room, think the thing over, 
and then get down on my knees and pray to 
the only One who knows every thought in my 
heart. I have already done this. I have lain 
in my bed night after night, thinking the matter 
over and despising myself because I could not 
come to a firm decision. Then I would get out 
of bed and pray God, through the Saviour, to 



RELIGIOUS 181 

give me strength. And now I feel that my 
prayers have been answered, as I have come 
to a decision, and that decision is to lead hence- 
forth a true Christian life. I have told my 
father and mother of this, and they were very 
much pleased, and promised to do everything 
in their power to help me. . . . This is the first 
letter I remember having written to anyone 
except my parents and I may not have ex- 
pressed myself as I should wish, but I feel that 
you can understand my feelings when I say I 
have won the great fight and intend to remain 
a winner." 

This boy, forty-seven years after the experience 
of Mr. Stead, was led into a decision for Chris- 
tian living in practically the same way — an 
illustration of what is meant by the psycholog- 
ical moment, and the great opportunity for an 
adult to render the needful service. Parent 
and teacher should be on the alert to discern 
this critical moment in the boy's deep religious 
struggle. To help a boy to win this struggle for 
religious expression and to decide for his loyalty 
to Jesus Christ and His standard of living, is 
a form of life-saving service fully as important 
as pulling him out of a whirlpool of angry waters. 

Loyalty to Jesus Christ should naturally lead 
to uniting with the Church. Through careful 
guidance and instruction, the boy during the 
age period of fourteen to seventeen years should 



132 BOYOLOGY 

be led to make a public confession of his alle- 
giance to Jesus Christ. This should be in a 
normal manner, not by some outburst of enthu- 
siasm, but by an act of the will. Decisions are 
made in adolescence. Expanding life compels 
a youth to come face to face with many issues. 
It will include either uniting with the Church 
or postponement until a more convenient time. 
To refuse to decide is in itself a decision. 

The attitude of the youth toward church mem- 
bership will to a large degree be determined by the 
attitude of his parents, and older people with 
whom he is acquainted. Many boys have come 
to this important stage of their religious life, 
only to find a barricade to church membership 
erected by over-cautious parents who believe he 
is "too young'* or that "he does not understand 
what he is doing," or "that he may not hold 
out." Here is the cause of the down grade of 
many a boy, as well as the heartaches of scores 
of pastors. No matter what the human mis- 
takes of the Church have been in the past, the 
boy needs the Church and the Church needs 
the boy. Prof. Votaw puts it in this manner: 
"I wish to say that the boy needs church mem- 
bership from the age of twelve on. It is one 
of the greatest expedients devised for helping 
a boy through the storm and stress period of 
life. BUs church membership may be, in many 



RELIGIOUS 133 

cases it has been, a sheet anchor to windward 
holding him off the rocks. Belonging to the 
Church during the adolescent period, holding 
oneself to the pledge of membership, standing 
out positively for the Christian life, seems to 
me the most important social, moral, and religious 
relationship a boy can enter upon. The essential 
thing is that in the adolescent years he assume 
the individual responsibilities of his life, put his 
trust in God, commit himself to God*s ideal for 
men, take up such work as he can do, enter 
into the larger relationships that now open to 
him, set himself to achieve the finest manhood, 
to render the highest service, and to make his 
life as great a success as possible. He will no- 
where find so high an ideal as the Christian 
ideal; he will nowhere find so much companion- 
ship and help in his course as among Christian 
people."^*^ 

Never criticize their church, the pastor or the 
members in the presence of boys, but encourage 
them to love their church, to be loyal and full 
of faith, ready to answer to its great call for 
service. 

The function of worship is somewhat over- 
looked in the development of a boy*s religious 
life. "In worship, as an expression of the re- 
Hgious state of mind," says Hartshorne, "the 

^ Hartshome, "Worship in the Sunday School," p. 22. 



134 BOYOLOGY 

highest values are symbolized and sought. They 
are here brought clearly to consciousness and 
renewed in vitahty. Worship thus becomes a 
means of social control, for it serves to cultivate 
and revitalize in the individual the appreciation 
of objects which in its best moments society has 
come to regard as of the highest value." The 
Church is beginning to recognize the necessity 
of adapting its services to the needs of childhood 
and youth. The musical features, the responsive 
readings, the prayer, and the spoken word all 
appeal to him, especially when they are so ar- 
ranged that action and right living will result 
rather than mere formalism. 

When the youth enters into his eighteenth or 
nineteenth year, there comes over him a mental 
turmoil. Doubts of beliefs and ideals are com- 
mon. He is now thinking, as well as working 
out his own salvation with fear and trembling. 
He is no longer a boy. The struggle for man- 
hood is now on and he is finding out that the 
conflict between good and evil is no summer's 
play. It cannot be evaded. It is now difiicult 
to keep him in the Sunday school and in church. 
"He feels a revulsion from all sorts of religious 
emotionalism and you cannot touch him with a 
year of prayer meetings, even of the quiet, 
modern type," observes Prof. Fiske. Boyhood 
visions have been disillusioned — ^he is tinctured 



RELIGIOUS 135 

with a certain kind of cynicism and doubt. It 
is during this terrific struggle for character — 
Christian character — that he needs friendship, 
constant, abiding, sympathetic friendship, rather 
than criticism. He is now looking for the real 
thing, and honors above everything else real 
nobility of character that is devoid of sham. 
He is usually silent about it, for he is afraid of 
being misunderstood. He has his own ideas on 
religion and plenty of doubt as well. Again 
quoting that master interpreter of boy-life. 
Prof. Fiske: "He needs a rational basis for his 
life creed, and he needs it soon, or he never will 
get it. It must be proved to him in some natural, 
undogmatic way (or better, flashed upon his 
intuitions) that the well-rounded manhood which 
he covets needs culture on the spiritual side to 
complete its symmetry. In short, he needs, not 
the effeminate sort, but a man's religion, which 
will appeal to his whole manhood. For the 
young man is not all spirit. He has a body to 
keep strong and well, and he welcomes any 
means which will help him in his life problem. 
He needs the right kind of fellowship, the heart 
of good friendship and the moral backbone of 
upright comradeship. . . . Above all he needs 
to be on friendly terms with Jesus Christ. Give 
him the great protection of the Christ love, the 
high incentive of the Christ ideals, the mighty 



186 BOYOLOGY 

impulse of the Christian purpose, the Christ 
loyalty — with the brotherly comradeship of the 
Christian Church; and you have armed him with 
all the panoply of God. He will win his fight."" 

**A creed is a rod. 

And a crown is of might; 
But this thing is God: 

To be man, with thy might; 
To stand straight in the strength of thy spirit 
And live out thy life as the light." 

— Pbesidbnt William DeWitt Htob. 



11 Fiake, "Boy Life and Self Govenunent," pp. 268, 269. 



CHAPTER VII 

Vocational Characteristics 

**The world has work for us; we must refuse 
No honest task, nor uncongenial toil: 
Fear not your feet to toil nor robe to soil 
Nor let your hands grow white for want of use." 
— Allen Palmer Alleeton. 

What shall a boy's life be? This is a most 
serious problem with both the boy and his 
parents. "As the twig is bent the tree is in- 
clined," goes an old saying. Judging from the 
large number of vocationally "bent" individuals 
in the world, one is led to believe that much 
of the bending was inclined downward during 
the moldable period of their youth or else, like 
Topsy, "they just growed," whithersoever in- 
clined. "As the boy is started so the man prob- 
ably will be." Many of the failures in life as 
well as much of the unhappiness and discontent, 
and shall we say crime, is traceable to our ap- 
parent inability to harness the aptitudes in the 
boy to definite vocations. Ask the boy of today, 
"What do you want to become?" or "What 

137 



188 BOYOLOGY 

are you going to do?" and invariably you get 
the reply, "I don't know,'* or, "Oh, anything 
that comes along," or else they plan to capture 
a job with big pay and little work. 

In answer to the question: "What occupation 
or profession are you going to follow as a life 
work?" 375 boys gave the following replies: 



Undecided 


107 


Electrical Engineering 


42 


Young Men's Christian Association Work 


S6 


Business 


29 


Farming or Forestry 


19 


Chemistry 


15 


Machinist 


14 


Law 


14 


Civil Engineering 


IS 


Medicine 


13 


Ministry 


7 


Draughtsman 


7 


Architecture 


6 


Art 


4 


Dentist 


4 


Textiles 


4 


Mechanical Engineering 


4 


Jewelry Trade 


8 


Musician 


S 


Accountant 


8 


Journalism 


2 


Carpenter 


2 


Navy 


2 


Army 


2 


Stenography 


2 


Banker 


2 


Insurance 


2 


Cotton Manufacturing 


1 


Wool Manufacturing 


1 


English Professor 


1 


Private Secretary 


1 


Detective 


1 



VOCATIONAL 139 

Teacher 

Printer 

Mining Engineer 

Geologist 

Plumber 

Civil Service 

Clerk 

Embassy Work 

Marine Architect 

107 were undecided. 268 chose forty professions, trades 
and occupations. 



Ninety per cent of the boys were over sixteen 
years of age and attending high school. They 
were the representative boys of 86 different 
cities and towns in two states. One reason 
why so large a number were considering the 
work of the Young Men's Christian Association, 
was that they were Association boys and in 
attendance at a conference of older boys con- 
ducted by the Association. Forty different 
professions, trades, and occupations were named 
by the boys. The fact that 107 of the 375 had 
not yet decided is evidence of the need of voca- 
tional guidance and advice by parents and 
schools, so that boys may be steered away from 
"blind alley" jobs and "any old thing that 
comes along." 

Aptitude comes as much from special training 
as from natural gifts. Inclination is largely a 
matter of desire and of the will; it is habituated 
desire. 



140 BOYOLOGY 

"Give the boy a hammer and 

A pocketful of nails. 
Turn him loose at making things — 

Soon there will be wails. 
Sobs, then sniffles — then he's out 

Trying it anew; 
That's the thing that counts in life — 

Grit to see it through. 

"Guess we're boys most all our lives; 
Only sometimes we 
Lay our hammers down too soon. 

Wishing we could be 
Smooth at things as some one else. 

Folks are mighty few 
Who are born all- wise; the rest 
Stuck, and saw it through." 

— Chicago News. 

To make things is a natural desire. Working 
with tools is common among boys. A jack- 
knife is a valuable p>ossession to be found in 
the pK)cket of every normal boy. If this desire 
or aptitude for working with tools is encouraged 
or wisely directed, nothing else will so clearly 
demonstrate the difference between right and 
wrong as constructive work, which enables the 
boy to discover for himself any error which he 
may make. He learns to test the result of his 
own work and to despise inaccuracy. It encour- 
ages neatness, accuracy, and honesty. A lie 
in wood can be seen. Jacob Riis once said: 
"When I first saw the Viking Ship dug out in 



VOCATIONAL 141 

Norway, the thing which most impressed me was 
the mark of a lazy carpenter's axe upon the 
prow of the ship. He had been too lazy to grind 
his axe and the record was there plain to be 
seen after a thousand years." 

The "playing store" of early chDdhood soon 
changes into the bartering and trading of boy- 
hood. A boy's pockets are the index of his 
wealth. Fifty-seven varieties of articles traded or 
"swapped" with other embryo merchants, or 
tradesmen, may be foimd in this wonderful 
treasure house of the boy — ^his pockets. Whether 
he will become the honest tradesman or a tricky 
merchant of the future is determined very largely 
by the busmess ethics of boyhood. Honesty, 
genuineness, fairness, and the square deal are 
business virtues first learned in the school of 
youth. A newspaper route has been not only 
a financial asset but a means of developing in 
the boy the habits of promptness, accuracy, 
perception, and honesty. 

Every boy should be studied and watched. 
Analyze each action and inclination and apti- 
tude. It will be a great mistake to force him 
or hurry him to decide upon his life work. "Do 
not fit him to a calling," says Fowler; "find a 
calling that fits him. There are a thousand 
means of livelihood. The boy has but one 
prominent ability. Discover that ability, and 



142 BOYOLOGY 

feed it with the kind of food it needs, that it 
may develop into a good thing for the boy and 
a good thing for the community.*'^ 

"Physically and mentally the human offspring 
begins at the lower stratum of animal hfe. What 
he will be, not what he is, gives him the right 
of consequence. K he has characteristics, he 
does not show them. If he thinks, he does not 
know what he thinks, and therefore he presents 
little perceptible indication of mind — capacity. 
His only marked characteristic, or rather, his 
one display of instinct, is a continual desire for 
food. He can eat, if food be given him. He 
doesn't know enough to forage for it. Unkept 
and unfed, he dies. To eat is the substance of 
his ambition, and when he is not eating, or 
trying to eat, he is doing nothing, or is smiling, 
or crying, or sleeping. He is of importance, not 
for what he is, but for what he may be, or is 
likely to be, or it is hoped he will be. He is a 
Kttle, round, helpless, thin-skinned lump of ex- 
pectation; entirely helpless, completely dependent, 
and in a present state of total worthlessness. 
Yet the maiden aunt and sentimental mother 
may think that they see in the just-born boy 
every conspicuous trait from every branch of 
two family trees." 

"When the boy is a few years old, family 

1 Fowler, "The Boy— How to Help Him to Succeed," p. 13. 



VOCATIONAL 143 

pride and parental conceit, correctly and in- 
correctly, and often dangerously, discover in 
him everything they desire to discover." "Up 
to the tenth or twelfth year-point, the boy's 
physical condition deserves the first attention 
with, of course, the absorption of the *Three R's* 
of school." 

"The boy now begins to show some permanent 
likes and dislikes. The keen observer . . . may 
discover the beginning of some definite charac- 
teristic, or some particular ability, or some 
specific tendency." 

"At the age of ten years, the boy is old enough, 
and mentally strong enough, to begin to appre- 
ciate and to be materially influenced by his 
surroundings. . . . He is mature enough to reason, 
he is old enough to choose his associates and 
he does. He is beginning to travel upon the 
high-road of his life."^ 

It is just here that many times he is left with- 
out intelligent guidance to sink or swim. For 
at about fourteen y^rs of age there is a great 
outpouring of boys from school to go to work. 
Then follows the sad tale of "from one job to 
another" like the rudderless vessel upon the 
great ocean of life. Do you wonder why? "The 
time is coming," says Everett W. Lord, "when 
we will not allow a near-sighted boy to become 

2 Fowler, "The Boy— How to Help Him Succeed," p. 18. 



144 BOYOLOGY 

a chaufiFeur, a dull-eared girl to become a stenog- 
rapher, a chronically careless youth to become 
a druggist, or an intellectual lightweight to be- 
come a preacher," but on the other hand, some 
effort will be made to guide the boy of construc- 
tive mind, artistic bent, and mechanical skill 
into something which will afford him a wider 
range for his powers than the clerical position 
in a candy shop or as a soda water dispenser, 
which may happen to be the first opening he 
finds."^ 

The home and the school must cooperate in 
helping the boy become adjusted to his new 
unfolding environment. The power of self- 
control and self -propulsion called "will*' is now 
in process of formation. **The positive dislike 
for book-study which comes at the age when 
it is the tendency of the boy to doy and not to 
study, coupled with the ineffectiveness of the 
school to meet the natural demand of the boy," 
is the cause of the boy's hunting a job. This 
is the reason why there are 16,000,000 boys 
and girls in the elementary schools of America 
and only 776,000 in the high schools. 

"If moral education is to prepare for life," 
says Edward Howard Griggs, "it must train 
both the desire for earnest work and the habit 
of its performance. . . . Hard effort is the one 

» Lord, "Vocation Direction," p. 10. 



VOCATIONAL 145 

path to a self-control, positive, not negative, 
that makes it possible for us to trust ourselves 
and to utilize all our forces for the ends we 
consider worth while."^ 

A boy needs help in the choice of a vocation 
along these three lines: first, he should have a 
clear understanding of himself, his aptitudes, 
interests, ambitions, abilities, resomrces, and lim- 
itations; second, he should have a knowledge 
of the requirements and conditions of success, 
the advantages and disadvantages, the compen- 
sation, opportunities for advancement, social 
standing, and peculiar demands of different lines 
of work; third, he should be clearly taught the 
spiritualization of work, the joy of service, to 
make the best always the goal, not for self, but 
for the good of humanity, to believe the mind of 
the worker must be set eternally upon the attain- 
ment of a high spiritual goal. 

A boy is capable of being reasoned with, and 
the observant parent or teacher will watch for 
every opportunity to talk with him about the 
prospect of a life work. It is the boy that finally 
must make the decision and not his parents. 
Parental personal ambitions for their boy must 
often be sacrificed if the boy is to succeed. Forc- 
ing a boy to take up a business or profession 



4 Griggs, "Moral Education," p. 86. 



146 BOYOLOGY 

if he has no inclination or aptitude for it, is sure 
to end disastrously. 

Close friendship and confidence will reveal 
sooner or later, that which "in response to 
inner nerve growths and new features of his 
environment, will lead him to assert himself 
most positively in the direction of some kind 
of useful occupation." What he needs at this 
time is encouragement and not criticism. 

Put into the boy's hands to read, especially 
when he reaches fifteen or sixteen years of age, 
such books as "Choosing a Career," by Orison 
Swett Harden, "What Shall Our Boys do for 
a Living?" by Wingate, "Profitable Vocations 
for Boys," by E. H. Weaver, or some sanely 
written book which will stimulate as well as 
direct his thinking. Benjamin Franklin in his 
autobiography says of his father "that he there- 
fore sometimes took me to walk with him, to 
see the joiners, bricklayers, turners, braziers, 
etc., at their work, that he must fix my inclina- 
tion, and endeavor to fix it on some trade or 
other on land." 

Freedom is needed as well as flexibility in 
helping a boy decide his life work. If the boy 
enjoys working with the soil and outdoors, 
better than any other kind of work and has 
a desire to be a farmer, let him be one, only im- 
press upon him the advantage of being a good 



VOCATIONAL 147 

fanner, and not a mere drudge; show him that 
being a graduate of an agricultural college will 
enable him to work the land much more intel- 
ligently and successfully. With this natural 
tendency to the soil, endeavor to arouse within 
him a desire for increased education, so that 
he may become a master of the soil instead of 
its slave. 

A boy who has an inclination toward business 
should be told of the need of uprightness and 
sterling character in business life, how an educa- 
tion is essential to success, how psychology, soci- 
ology, scientific salesmanship, and economics all 
enter into business efficiency, how personal effi- 
ciency largely determines business efficiency. If he 
is a student and loves study, show him the differ- 
ence between memorized learning and thinking 
out a subject, how a good sound body must 
accompany a well-developed intellect, how 
knowledge combined with health gives power 
and wealth. The boy who has a decided prefer- 
ence for some profession, should be helped to 
understand the status of that profession, its 
advantages as well as disadvantages; tell him 
the bad as well as the good, how an education 
is absolutely necessary if he is to become some- 
thing more than a mere member of the profession. 
The boy's ability and desire for building, the 
instinct of workmanship or love of machinery 



148 BOYOLOGY 

may cause him to look favorably upon the trades 
as a life work. If so, point out to him the differ- 
ence between a mere worker and one who 
understands the scientific asp>ects, such as the 
application of physics, chemistry, etc., to the 
trades and industries. By this reasoning process 
direct his decision and conclusion rather than 
force him to become what you want him to be. 
Help him to see the value of education, and 
that no matter what may be his future voca- 
tion, with an education his earning capacity 
will be more than doubled and his chances for 
success trebled. 

In a study of former pupils of the Pittsburgh 
schools made by Mr. Burroughs, he gives the 
following findings: 

Those leaving school below the eighth grade, average 
age 14 years 6 months, started to work at a weekly wage 
averaging $4.96; at the end of four years were earning 
$10.79, and after eight years $13.25. 

Those graduating from the eighth grade but not going 
to high school started to work at $5.96 a week; four years 
later were making $13.86, and after eight years $16.23. 
Their ages averaged 15 years and 4 months when they 
started to work. 

High school graduates, average age 18 years and 3 
months, started at an average pay of $10.73 weekly; after 
four years it went up to $17.77, and after eight years to 
$23.44. 

Give these facts to the boy, and help him see 



VOCATIONAL 149 

the force of such a statement. A great weak- 
ness in youth is the spirit of discontent, or the 
habit of moving aimlessly from one thing to 
another, the unwillingness to take time to ,work 
out a life plan, or to stick to a given task until 
something is accomplished. The wise parent or 
teacher will endeavor to get the boys to see the 
value of "this one thing I do" instead of "these 
many things I dabble in" as being the only way 
to develop concentration. Perhaps this dabbling 
may be due to adult insistence upon a boy's do- 
ing something for which he has no inclination 
and intuitively knows he is not adapted, and 
therefore he starts out on a term of experimenta- 
tion hoping to find the one thing of absorbing 
interest to demand his life, or he may be the 
victim of a system of education which insists 
upon the boy being fitted to the school rather 
than fitting the school to the boy. The attempt 
to develop concentration or will-power through 
arbitrary requirements has proven not only a 
failure, but is largely responsible for dishonesty 
in studies and truancy. Interest and aptitude 
are the prime factors in the development of 
concentration. Marietta L. Johnson, who is work- 
ing out a most interesting experiment in educa- 
tion in her school at Fairhope, Ala., holds that 
an institution has no right to ask, "What do 
you know?" "Where are your credentials?" 



160 BOYOLOGY 

It should require instead, "What do you need?'* 
"How may we serve you?" The "standards'* 
of an institution are thus measured by its ser- 
vices, not by its requirements. 

"Mrs. Johnson's standards are a healthy body, an alert 
and active mind, and a sweet spirit. . . . For the health 
of the body there is an out-of-door activity adapted to 
the development and the strength and the needs of the 
child. For the mind there are the acquaintance with 
nature at first hand, the solving of problems in the making 
of things, the controlling of forces and of materials, the 
mastery of quantity in the measuring and weighing and 
calculating, the learning of stories from history and from 
literature, with their instinctive dramatization. There 
is constant translation of words into thoughts and actions. 
Finally the health of the spirit is ministered to by the 
provision of 'sincere experiences' in relation to other 
children and in relation to the forces and materials of 
nature and industry. There is joy in the work because 
the work has meaning. Mrs. Johnson sees very clearly 
that half-hearted work is insincere."* 

Netta M. Breckenridge interprets this desire 
for freedom in education in her poem, "The 
Child Ciy:" 

"I am a child — oh, do not tie me up 

To schools, and desks, and books misunderstood. 
When I am yearning to run out a-field. 

To search the quiet of the dim, sweet wood. 

"And — oh — sweet Mother — do not set me sums. 
And those stiff, staring copies of some word. 
Let me count meadows full of clover blooms. 
And learn the sweet, free singing of a bird. 
» The Scientific American Supplement, Nov. 14, 1914. 



VOCATIONAL 151 

"For I have found a Teacher to my mind. 
She whispers sweet instruction when at rest 
I stretch brown arms — bare feet in cool, deep grass 
That feels the heart throb 'neath her great warm breast. 

"Then when the trees, the flowers, the sky, the birds. 
Have taught their true, strong lessons, I'll come in 
With eager, hungry questioning, and say, 

'The books — sweet Mother — quick, I must begin!' " 

"Spontaneity is absolutely necessary to orig- 
inality," says Dr. Harden. "The enterprising 
side of his nature, the enthusiastic, natural side, 
is absolutely crushed in many a youth before 
he reaches his majority.'*** 

Naturalness and self-expression should be en- 
couraged instead of being repressed. If a boy 
does not show interest or enthusiasm in his 
studies there is something wrong, for these char- 
acteristics are as natural to a boy as play is to 
a young dog or song to a bird. It is a very 
easy thing to crush ambition and interest and 
enthusiasm in a boy. This may be done through 
a lack of sympathy, through indifference, or 
through neglect. He is hungry for encourage- 
ment, for direction, and for leadership. It is 
the duty of the parent and the teacher to en- 
deavor to understand the boy, his natural ex- 
pression and his bent, and then let him know 
your interest and willingness to help achieve 
his heart's desire and purpose. 

• Marden, "Chooeing a Career," p. 4. 



152 BOYOLOGY 

Statistics show that about five out of every 
100 boys go from the public schools to college, 
yet we compel the other 95 who do not or camiot 
go, to prepare for college just the same. This 
blundering process has caused many misfits in 
life. Cities are beginning to feel the drain of 
the unemployed, many of whom are the products 
of this inefficient system of education. 

Recently some of the thoughtful citizens of 
Memphis made a careful study of their school 
system and discovered that Memphis invited 
every youth in the city to become a teacher or 
lawyer, a doctor or minister, but she encouraged 
none to prepare in school for efficient service in 
her hundreds of factories and thousands of 
offices. They became convinced that Memphis 
needed more skilled workers in her shops, fac- 
tories, and homes instead of university grad- 
uates, some of whom were prepared for nothing 
more than holding down an engineering job 
tending a peanut roaster. They respected the 
peanut vender who sells honest measures at 
fair prices, provided he was unprepared to 
render more useful service to the community; 
they also agreed that a man who received from 
twelve to sixteen years of schooling at public 
expense should make a greater return to society 
than is possible as a street vender. 

When a boy leaves school, the world wants 



VOCATIONAL 153 

to know what he can do, how well he can do 
it, and how soon he can get it done. This means 
that the school must adapt its course of study 
to the needs of the boy, as well as to changing 
conditions. By their overcrowded enrolment, 
manual training schools, technical schools, and 
schools of applied art reveal the appreciation 
of the home and the boy. In these schools a 
boy sees a chance for self-expression, or at least 
an opportunity for a "try-out." The public 
schools of tomorrow will incorporate many of 
the ideas being tried out today by private schools 
such as the Interlaken School at Rolling Prairie, 
Indiana, and by courageous municipalities, as at 
Gary, Indiana. The future method of impart- 
ing instruction will be through vizualization; it 
wiU be more human and natural and less book- 
ish and artificial; it will be individual instead 
of class work; it will be made so interesting that 
boys will look upon education as something to 
be desired and school a place of delight instead 
of something to run away from; it will teach 
boys how to live. 

"Educational experts contend that our schools 
should be made still more efficient in preparing 
the youth of the community for citizenship, and 
many are reaching the conclusion that this may 
be done by devoting more time to subjects 
which prepare students for entering upon some 



154 BOYOLOGY 

remunerative pursuit," says John W. Curtis, in 
a recent article on vocational education.^ "It 
is certainly desirable that our future citizens be 
better workers, and that future workers be 
better citizens.'* All are agreed that every boy 
should become a useful worker and a reliable 
citizen and many believe that manual training 
is aiding materially in securing this result. It 
has afforded a means of stimulating the dormant 
creative instinct with which most boys are en- 
dowed and has aided in developing it into cre- 
ative genius, which may be defined as the ca- 
pacity for hard work or, as Edison says, is com- 
posed of "2 per cent inspiration and 98 per cent 
perspiration." This may mean less Latin and 
more civics, less of the non-essential and more 
of the essential, fewer elective and more selective 
studies. 

In this demand for a newer type of vocational 
education there is the danger of neglecting the 
cultural side of education. Dr. David Snedden 
in his book, "Problems of Educational Readjust- 
ment," divides education into two parts, namely, 
vocational and liberal, and defines them briefly 
as follows: '^Vocational education is designed 
to make of a person an efficient producer; Ub- 
eral education may be designed to make a person 
an efficient consumer or user." The great task 

7 Ctirtis, Manual Training Magazine, Dec, 1913, p. 89. 



VOCATIONAL 155 

of the school authorities is so to harmonize the 
vocationalizing and liberalizing materials that all 
will work together in developing the strongest 
possible type of individual and the best kind of 
a citizen. "We are learning that work and in- 
dustry are not inconsistent with culture," writes 
William A. McKeever, "but that they are a 
necessary part of it; cultured artisans as well 
as cultured artists constitute a part of this 
new age of progress." 

Motives are incentives to the will. Love of 
activity, love of power, love of fame, are mo- 
tives which may be appealed to in shaping a 
boy's future motives vocationally. Make clear 
to him the difference between a right and wrong 
motive. Many methods are being used in dis- 
covering the motives of a boy, such as the "Know 
YourseK" campaigns and personal interviews 
with men who have the ability of winning the 
confidence of boys and to whom they will re- 
veal their problems. Methods used in dealing 
with large numbers of boys are always in danger 
of becoming formal and automatic, and there- 
fore ineffective. The method should always be 
a means to an end, namely, the arousement 
within a boy of that spirit which will lead him 
into a larger life of usefulness, happiness, and 
service. 

Hanging upon the walls of my library is a 



156 BOYOLOGY 

framed photograph of Edwin Markham, and 
underneath in his own handwriting this sentence: 
"WTiile we are making a living let us not fail 
to make a life." WTiatever the life call may be 
to a boy, make sure that he understands the 
imp>ortance of reverencing his work "to make 
of it a way of life.'* Vocation then becomes 
something more than a means of getting a liv- 
ing. It is this spiritualization of work, the joy 
of service that makes the livelihood of life worth 
while. A boy cannot be impressed too early 
in life with the glorification of work, whether 
mental or muscular. "Seek ye therefore the 
motive with its associating results and all the 
rest shall be added unto you.'* 

"Vocations are then 'higher* or 'lower' only 
as they express more or less of the ideal and 
consecration of the spirit, and any honest voca- 
tion may express it all. Shoes into which a 
man has sewn character are worth wearing; 
they will keep the water out. A house into 
which a man has built character is good to live 
in; it wiQ be weather tight. Books into which 
a man has written character are worth reading; 
they will contain sound thought.**^ This was 
the spirit of Moses whose prayer to God is re- 
corded in the 90th Psalm, especially verses 16 
and 17. "Let thy work appear unto thy ser- 

8 Grigga, "Self Culture through the Vocation," p. 71. 



VOCATIONAL 157 

vants and thy glory unto their children. And 
let the beauty of the Lord our God be upon us; 
and establish thou the work of our hands upon 
us; yea, the work of our hands establish thou it." 
To prevent greed and avarice and selfishness, 
so much in evidence in the money making of to- 
day, the bo^ must be taught from the very start 
the joy of serving or doing some work for no 
other pay than that of gratitude and love, ser- 
vice to be given freely, out of the heart's de- 
sire, gladly, without money and without price. 
There is a saying in the Koran, that when a 
man dies the people say, "What has he left 
behind him.^" but the recording Angel says^ 
"What good deeds has he sent before him?" 

"Let me but do my work from day to day. 
In field or forest, at the desk or loom. 
In roaring market-place or tranquil room 
Let me but find it in my heart to say 
When vagrant wishes beckon me astray, 
'This is my work; my blessing, not my doom: 
Of all who live, I am the one by whom 
This work can best be done in my own way.* 

"Then shall I see 'tis not too great, nor small: 
To suit my spirit and to prove my powers; 
Then shall I cheerful greet the laboring hours. 
And cheerful turn, when the long shadows fall 
At eventide, to play and love and rest 
Because I know for me my work is best." 

— Henry van Dyke, 



-< 
a 

g 


Slow growth in height and 

weight. 
Brain growth slow. 
Restlessness — energy. 
Coordination of muscles — play 

out of doors. 
An energy storing period for 

use of next period. 


Memory at its best. 
Attention weak. 
Perception strong. 
Imagination of practical turn. 
Reasoning developing rapidly. 
, Imitation of adults — with a 

purpose to be like them. 
Suggestibility strong. 
Will stronger. 


g 


Rapid growth of brain and 

muscle. 
Peculiarly liable to disease. 


Impulsive. 

Memory increasing. 

Perception keen. 

Curiosity — the "why" "how" 

stage. 
Imagination active. 
Will begins to develop. 
Imitation of adults strong. 
Suggestibility. 


•< 
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» 

g 


Very rapid rate of growth. 
Skin highly sensitive — learns 

much by touch. 
No coordination of powers. 
Restlessness. 


Invests inanimate things with 

life. 
Perception of concrete objects 

keen. 
Memory for concrete things. 
Curiosity — the "what" stage. 
Imitation unconscious. 
No real thought power. 
Fanciful imagination. 
Open to suggestion. 




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158 



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Imaginative "fears." 
Sympathy, love, affection. 
Crude sense of humor. 
Shyness. 


Social impulses increasing. 
Pugnacious nature. 
Sense of right of property de- 
velops. 
Altruism prominent. 
Less selfishness. 
Love of order increases. 


g 

CO 


Fears prominent and are im- 
aginative, increasing. 
Sensitive "feelings." 
Anger, pride, jealousy. 


Desire for company grows rap- 
idly. 

Pugnacious. 

Disregard for dress. 

Love of order. 

Rebels against restraint of any 
kind. 


1 

g 

on 


Fear — anxiety for right. 

Anger, jealousy. 

Sympathy begins at close to 

three. 
Instinctive emotional feeling. 
Many emotions imitative. 
All emotions superficial. 
Fears are imaginative. 


Fear prompts desire for com- 
pany. 
Selfishness common. 
Generosity sometimes found. 
Imitates unconsciously. 




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Strength and agility cultivated. 

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opment continues to end of 
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Ripening of powers. 


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Doubts strong — climax. 

Great readjustment in thinking. 

Mental powers very keen. 


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Imitation on decline. 
Greater activity in thinking. 
Receptive powers quick. 


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Awkwardness. 

Boisterousness. 

Change of features. 

Vitality and energy alternates 
with languor. 

Health better in most cases. 

Heredity asserts itself. 


Creative imagination. 

Verbal memory but logical. 

Reason. 

Doubt growing stronger. 

Suggestibility. 

Imitation — becomes like ideal. 

Great intellectual energy wants 

outlet. 
Power of influence strong. 




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165 



BOOK n 

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS AND 
OBSERVATIONS 



CHAPTER VIII 

f 
Taking His Measure 

**Flower in the crannied wall, 
I pluck you out of the crannies, 
I hold you here, root and all, in my hand, 
Little flower — but if I could understand 
"What you are, root and all, and all in all, 
I should know what God and man is." 

— Tennyson. 

It is the unknowable which has always baffled 
man. The most mysterious period in life is the 
period of adolescence, or the growing time. 
The chief business of a boy is to grow. Boy 
stuff is the only stuff in the world from which 
you can grow a man. If the actual process of 
growing was as easy as the building of a house, 
boys would be spared many a "growing pain;" 
but, alas! the yawning, the stretching, the kick- 
ing, the crawling, the climbing, the running, 
and the resisting he must go through to attain 
physical stature; then add to all this the mental 
struggle and the pangs of social adjustment he 
must undergo in the wonderful phenomena of 
growing into a man, and you begin to appre- 
ciate the seriousness of the process of growth, 

169 



170 BOYOLOGY 

which parents fail to understand and scientists 
have not yet succeeded in making much easier. 
Two skilled builders. Nature and Nurture, how- 
ever, are on the job, one as the architect and 
the other as the worker, a firm, which when in 
harmony and not on a strike, usually succeeds 
in making 

'*Man of soul and body, formed for deeds of high resolve." 

What is a boy? George Allen Hubbell de- 
scribes him as follows: 

"In the language of chemistry, he is a shovelful of earth 
and a bucketful of water. 

"In the language of physics, he is a wonderful machine, 
a combination of various bands, cords and levers, ad- 
justed in due relation and operating for a specific purpose. 

"In the language of physiology, he consists of a bony 
framework covered with flesh and skin, and supplied 
with various organs whose functions are to preserve the 
life of the individual and to perpetuate the species. 

"In the language of sociology, he is a unit in the organ- 
ism of human society and has his specific functions in 
the life of the social whole, just as the organs of the 
body have specific functions in the life of the body. 

"In the language of psychology, he is a mind man- 
ifesting various phenomena, all of which occur in harmony 
with law. 

"In the language of theology, he is the dust of the 
ground and the breath of God, a spark struck from the 
divine anvil, a life enclosed in a clod of clay, a son of 
the Most High, afar from his Father's house, but when 
true to himself, seeking his eternal home. 



TAKING HIS MEASURE 171 

"In the language of education, he is a being constituted 
of body and mind, a bundle of possibilities from which 
the developments may be marvelous. He is born in 
weakness, yet destined to strength; promising noble 
things, yet often falling short of fulfillment. He is the 
hope of the good and the great."* 

According to the recent findings of a German 
scientist, the intrinsic value of the constituent 
elements of the body of a person weighing 150 
pounds is $7.50. This value is represented in 
the phosphorus, lime, iron, sulphur, and albumen 
in a body. The fat is worth about $2.50; of the 
iron there is hardly enough to make even a 
small nail an inch long. There is enough lime 
to whitewash a pretty good-sized chicken house. 
The phosphorus would be sufficient to put heads 
on about 2,200 matches and the magnesium enough 
to make a splendid "silver rain*' for a firework 
display. The average human body contains 
enough albumen for one hundred eggs. There 
is possibly a small teaspoonful of sugar and a 
pinch of salt. The whole is worth commercially 
$7.50. 

One does not fancy the human body as an 
electrical dynamo, but if the heat and muscular 
energy expended by an average man of sedentary 
habits were converted into electrical units, he 
would find himself in possession of quite a val- 

1 HubbeU, "Up Through ChUdhood," p. 121. 



172 BOYOLOGY 

uable asset. It is proved that a man uses up about 
two and one-half kilowatt hours of electrical 
energy in a working day. Approximately one- 
half of this amount is used up to keep the tem- 
perature of the body constant, while the other 
half is expended in muscular energy. This 
amount of electricity may not seem great, but 
when one considers the things that can be done 
when it is efficiently apphed, the power of the 
human body is more clearly seen. Two and one- 
half kilowatt hours of electrical energy is sufficient 
to maintain four 25-watt tungsten lamps of 
twenty candlepower each for twenty-five hours; 
or heat an electric flatiron for six hours; run a 
sewing-machine motor for 100 hours; heat an 
electric toaster for four hours; an electric heater 
for two hours; an electric curling iron for 100 
hours; run a large fan for thirty-two hours, or 
warm a chafing dish for six hours. All this is 
accomplished without voluntary effort, and merely 
comes in the course of the day's work, and does 
not represent the energy of a laboring man. 
It is an astounding revelation of the efficiency 
and endurance of the human machine. 

Physicians have measured this complex and 
ingenious human machine to a dot. A normal 
boy, fifteen years or more old, has 200 bones 
and 500 muscles; his blood weighs 25 pounds; 
his heart is nearly five inches in length and three 



TAKING HIS MEASURE 173 

inches in diameter. It beats 70 times a minute, 
4,200 times an hour, 100,800 times a day, and 
36,792,000 times a year. At each beat a little 
over two ounces of blood is thrown out of it; 
each day it receives and discharges about seven 
tons of that wonderful fluid. It is the most 
remarkable pump in the world. 

His limgs contain a gallon of air, and he in- 
hales 24,000 gallons a day. The aggregate sur- 
face of the air-cells of his lungs, supposing them 
to be spread out, is 20,000 square inches. The 
weight of his brain is three pounds or more. 
His nerves exceed 10,000,000. His skin is com- 
posed of three layers, and varies from one-eighth 
to one-fourth of an inch in thickness. The area 
of the skin is about 1,700 square inches and is 
subjected to an atmospheric pressure of 15 
pounds to the square inch, a total of 12.7 tons. 
Each square inch of his skin contains 3,500 
sweating tubes, or perspiratory pores, each of 
which may be likened to a little drain tile one- 
fourth of an inch long, making an aggregate 
length in the entire surface of his body of 201,160 
feet, or a tile ditch for draining the body almost 
40 miles long. Truly he is "fearfully and won- 
derfully" made. 

There is a clever invention known as the 
"phrenometer" operated by electricity which 
scientifically (?) measures, delineates, prints, and 



174 BOYOLOGY 

delivers on a sheet of paper the degree of develop- 
ment of every faculty of the brain. 

Taking his measure in a more popular way, 
some one has depicted a boy as "a complex piece 
of machinery consisting of 

"I. One large boiler, conmionly called the 
brain, capable of standing a very high pressure. 

"II. One special sized furnace, with a capacity 
of several tons, sometimes spoken of as the 
stomach. 

"III. Two powerful headlights right in front of 
the boiler which will not let anything come in 
their path unnoticed. 

"IV. Five exhaust valves, namely, two arms, 
two legs and one mouth. 

"The whole engine is put together in such a 
way as to prove the most powerful machine 
that the world has ever had." 

Thus physicians have measured him, psychol- 
ogists have charted him, scientists have analyzed 
him, volumes have been written about him, 
libraries are filled with sound advice to him, 
conferences innmnerable have discussed him, but 
he still remains a complex problem and as yet 
inaccurately measured. 

No matter how others size him up, to his 
parents he is just a lovable, contrary, fun-loving, 
patience-provoking youngster who is always 
wanting something ranging from "eats" to sym- 



TAKING HIS MEASURE 175 

pathy, whose clothes are usually wearing out 
or becoming too small and whose bringing up 
is the greatest responsibility in the world. 

To help the boy grow "in wisdom and stature, 
and in favor with God and man," is the supreme 
function of every parent and boys' worker, 
and the person who faithfully and sympathetically 
guides the growing boy in right paths, who meas- 
ures up to the boy's ideal of a friend, whose 
life speaks louder than his words, is performing 
a greater service for humanity than in the erec- 
tion of a "sky scraper" or the digging of a canal. 
These things perish with time, but a boy is a 
soul representing eternity. 

To the psychologist must be granted the honor 
of arriving nearest to the solution of the boy 
problem. His patient study and painstaking 
research work have given to parents and teachers 
a new understanding of the boy: a knowledge of 
the powers of the mind, the emotions and im- 
pulses, the ambitions, and the cause and effect 
in the development of character. To his scien- 
tific knowledge has been added the experience 
of workers — a happy blending of theory and 
practice, which means a square deal in the fu- 
ture for misunderstood boys. 

In the endeavor to understand or "measure" 
the boy this fact should always be kept in mind, 
that he is also "taking your measure." His 



176 BOYOLOGY 

great ambition is to grow into manhood, and 
his conception of manhood he gets from observ- 
ing "grown ups." As he emerges from one stage 
of growth into another, he becomes more con- 
scious of himself and of increasing powers within 
him, he begins to draw comparisons, to discrim- 
inate, to form his own conclusions. This is 
his divine right, but woe to that individual who 
has set before the boy wrong standards of life, 
who becomes a stumbling block. "It were 
better for him that a millstone were hanged 
about his neck, and that he were drowned in 
the depth of the sea," for memory will always 
mirror unfaithful leadership and guidance. 

The thing which makes the body worth more 
than $7.50 and has caused laborious and pains- 
taking research, is that mysterious something 
called "life," or the "soul." The visible mani- 
festation of soul-life is character, for the process 
of growth involves the development of character. 
"As a man thinketli, so are his head and face; 
and as in our younger years we tend in this 
direction and that, so the brain will develop, 
and the bony structure will conform to the needs 
of the growth within."* 

Certain standards are held before a growing 
boy to which he is expected to measure up. 
Sometimes these standards are so insistently 

2 Fosbroke, "Character Reading," p. 2. 



TAKING HIS MEASURE 177 

forced upon him that inward rebellion soon be- 
comes outward rebellion. A "model*' boy is 
looked upon with disgust by a red-blooded, 
mischievous boy. Nothing so completely mad- 
dens a boy as the holding up before him one of 
these "model" boys. In that delightful story 
of boyhood, "Penrod," by Booth Tarkington, 
when Penrod is being initiated into the mystic 
maze of the dance by Professor Bartel, he seems 
to have considerable difficulty in acquiring the 
rhythmics of the waltz, and after his many awk- 
ward attempts to glide in the right direction the 
Professor calls out before the class George Bas- 
sett, who is the "Best Boy in the Town,** to 
demonstrate how it should be done properly. 
Now Penrod had a clear title of being the Worst 
Boy in the Town (Population 135,000). "Teach- 
er's pet," whispered Penrod hoarsely to Georgia 
as he passed by, after demonstrating the proper 
way. He had nothing but contempt for Georgie, 
and of course something happened later to the 
"model boy." A boy needs ideals, not models. 
Mothers make many errors of this sort. Fathers, 
having gone through the experience of boyhood, 
know better, unless time has shortened memory. 

The critical moment in a boy's life is the time 
when he doffs the knee pants and puts on long 
trousers. Mother wants to keep him a little 
boy as long as possible, while he wants to be 



178 BOYOLOGY 

big, and many battles royal have been fought over 
what he considers to be an inalienable right. 
There are two epochs in a boy's life which tug 
hard at the mother's heart-strings; one is when 
he has gotten too old to wear the curls or long 
"dutch" locks, and he "wants them cut off so 
he can go with bigger fellows," and the other 
when he reaches the long trouser period. The 
second epoch means even more than the first, 
both to mother and boy. Mother realizes that 
her "little boy" is a little boy no longer. It 
is hard for her to understand that nothing in 
God's Kingdom has ever stood still. To him 
it is reaching the "grown up" goal, an event of 
great moment, eagerly and longingly anticipated. 
Some time ago a boy in one of our eastern 
cities, having reached what he believed to be 
the long trouser period, naturally broached the 
matter to his parents, but alas, his parents said 
nay, so he appealed to his class mates in the 
high school. Though of small stature, he was 
a member of the senior class, and it was hu- 
miliating for him to wear the knee pants. His 
class mates in coimcil drew up the following 
and sent it to his parents: 

Whereas, Samuel Smith having reached the years of 
discretion, being a senior in the High School, desires now 
to further demonstrate his dignity by performing that 
feat known as wearing long trousers, and 



TAKING HIS MEASURE 179 

Whereas, his parental relative has taken a determined 
opposition to this proposed change of costume, therefore 

Resolved, that in the unanimous opinion of the pupils 
of the Blank High School, said Samuel Smith has demon- 
strated his ability to wear above mentioned type of trousers 
and has been campaigning along that line all summer. 

We, the undersigned, therefore petition that recog- 
nition of the above resolution be given by stern parent 
in granting the necessary permission and desired type 
of trousers. 

It is needless to add that the long trousers 
came and the goal was reached. 

Some one has called this long trouser period 
the "pin feather age." How significant is the 
first shave! Well do I remember my first shave! 
The peculiar sensation of having cool, creamy 
lather artistically spread over my downy jaw 
and upper lip, the electrical feeling as the steel 
blade carefully gathered up the fuzz with the 
cool lather, the application of hot towels, the 
penetrating aroma of Bay Rum and the fragrance 
of the "powder," was a never-to-be-forgotten 
experience. Another notch had been reached 
in the measuring rod of manhood. 

Parents need have no fear now about dirty 
hands and face or uncombed hair; the problem 
will be how to keep the boy away from the 
mirror, for you are almost sure to find a small 
one nestling with a comb in his vest pocket. 
How important becomes the crease in the trouser. 



180 BOYOLOGY 

and the "turn up" at the bottom, the shade of 
his tie, and the shape of his hat! He is now re- 
lieved from the tyranny of having mother buy 
his clothes, as T. A. Daly so vividly describes 
it in the following verses: 

"Mom always makes me mad clean through 

The way she buys my clothin'; 
She always picks out things fur you 

That fills yer soul with loathin.' 
It's happened time an' time again 

When I want something sporty, 
She sets her mind on somethin' plain, 

'Real cheap at seven-forty.' 
I try a suit that fits me right — 

A fit there ain't no doubt of — 
An' blamed if she don't say: 'Too tight! 

Too easy to grow out of.' 
She sez I'm just a 'little brute' 

An' 'drive her to distraction,* 
But she ain't never bought a suit 

That's gave me satisfaction. 

"I may be bad, but, Jimminee! 

I ain't a goin' to bear it. 
I guess I know the suit fur me. 

Since I'm the one to wear it. 
I kicked so hard to-day, O my! 

You bet I jist raised thunder. 
An' she went home an' told Pop I 

Wuz 'gitten quite beyond her.' 
Then Pop he sez a word, sez he. 

That filled my soul with laughter; 
He sez he's goin' along o' me 

To buy my clo'es hereafter!" 



TAKING HIS MEASURE 181 

He has now reached the point of "exit Mother" 
and "enter Father," when the comradeship of 
father becomes the real means of his measuring 
up to manhood's standards. Now is the time 
for father to talk to him intimately of the 
things men must meet in the busy world, the 
temptations, the struggles, the victories of the 
stronger sex. One father in telling of his talk 
with his boy said, "We discussed honor in all 
its phases — ^honor in finance, honor in the family 
relations, and honor in love. We dwelt on the 
fact that money may be used to measure a 
man, we were emphatic about the necessity of 
being exact in the smallest business matters, 
including those that concern the home. . . . On 
the last night of our vacation we sat before a 
wood fire and talked of life as the Great Oppor- 
tunity. Looking into the flame we saw visions 
of years in which it was possible to accomplish 
something which would justify our existences. 
My boy smiled in the calm, contented way 
which assured me that he had lofty dreams, 
and would be ready for the hand-to-hand en- 
counter with the world. "^ 

**How beautiful is youth! how bright it gleams 
With its illusions, aspirations, dreams! 
Book of Beginnings, Story without End. 
Each maid a heroine and each man a friend." 



» Carl Werner in The Outlook, Oct. 18, 1913. 



mt 



BOYOLOGY 



A boy is capable of measuring up to great 
resp)onsibilities. This nation of ours was saved 
by boys, just as the great war across the seas 
is now being fought by boys. According to 
the statistics of the United States Government, 
of the 2,500,000 soldiers enlisted in the Civil 
War, including 600,000 reenlistments, 

1,159,789 were under 21 years of age 



1,151,438 

844,897 

231,051 

104,987 

1,523 

300 

278 



Well governed cities 



18 
17 
16 
15 
14 
13 
12 

efficient schools, happy 
homes, and vitalized churches of the future de- 
pend upon the boys of today. Preparation for 
these greater responsibilities of the later teens 
and early manhood is made by the sharing of 
smaller resx>onsibilities during boyhood, in the 
home, in the Sunday school, in the public school, 
in the camp, in the Association, on the play- 
ground. When the appeal of the larger loyalty 
and responsibility comes, he will measure up to 
the best that is in him. 

"Every boy who comes to maturity," says T. 
A. Craig, 'Tias cost the state — that is you and me 



TAKING HIS MEASURE 183 

— one thousand dollars. Some boys go wrong. 
When a boy goes wrong, we not only lose our 
thousand dollars, but we have to spend another 
thousand to protect ourselves against him." 
Responsibihty inspires a boy to measure up to 
his best and naturally prevents wrong doing. 
Standards of right doing are established also by 
a knowledge of evil, just as the value of fresh 
air is taught by being told something of the 
evil of the lack of it. Ignorance of the dark 
and seamy side of life is not always a help to 
boys who are on the edge of a world in which 
good and evil are mixed. If boys are to be 
equipped with permanent standards of productive- 
ness and to measure up to their potentialities, 
they must be given hard things to do, they 
must be saved from the sin of selfishness through 
service for others, and the parent or friend who 
can guide them into paths of right doing will 
ever be remembered. Memory never forgets the 
friends of boyhood. "I had a friend*' is the 
secret of the manly, virile character of many 
men. 

"Earth's future glory and its hopes and joys 
Lie in the hearts and hands of growing boys. 
The world is theirs, to do with as they will; 
The world is theirs, for the good results or ill. 
We soon must give into their outstretched hands 
The mighty issues of our changing lands. 



184 BOYOLOGY 

In Earth's large house they soon shall take their place, 

A menace or a glory to the race. 

Tremendous issues on Time's threshold wait; 

We need strong men to guide the Ship of State 

Into the harbor of the next decade. 

Look to the boys from whom strong men are made." 



CHAPTER IX 

The Language of the Fence 

"There was a child went forth every day and the first 
object he looked upon, that object he became, and that 
object became part of him for the day or a certain part 
of the day, or for many years or stretching cycles of 
years." — Whitman. 

The language of the fence speaks more effec- 
tively in the molding of sentiment and morals 
among boys than does the eloquence of the 
pulpit. A piece of chalk in the hands of an 
evil-minded boy will cause the fence, side wall 
of a house, and even the pavement to blossom 
forth in pictures and language which the law 
forbids tongue to utter or artist to paint. This 
language is but the reflection of the thought life 
of the boy. As the boy grows older these thoughts 
become actions and society receives a shock. 
Frequently a school house may be located by 
the language chalked on nearby fences, and 
walks. It is appalling how thoroughly even 
immature boys and girls understand this lan- 
guage. It is a language not printed in books 

185 



186 BOYOLOGY 

but passed on from community to community 
in about the same way as marble playing, and 
the games of youth. The only difference in 
each community is the degree of vileness. Coun- 
try villages frequently exhibit more shocking 
drawings and sentences of filthy verse than the 
congested sections of the city. A traveler from 
Maine to California will not find a community 
where "the language of the fence" cannot be 
seen and read. 

The preponderance of its influence is evidenced 
by the records of the Juvenile Courts. The 
crimes of manhood begin during the habit-making 
period of youth. A mental photograph of the 
fence language was made through the lens of 
the eye, thought was stimulated, and action 
determined. Through a succession of uncon- 
trolled thoughts, habits were strengthened and 
hardened, until the mature criminal was pro- 
duced. Why are parents so blind and com- 
munities so self-centered upon material progress 
and success that they cannot read the language 
of the fence, or see its effect upon these citizens 
of tomorrow? Why are boys and girls per- 
mitted to be taught by others the vile names 
given to parts of their body before first learning 
their real names from their Grod appointed 
teachers — ^Mother and Father.? 

With a view to verifying these statements I 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE FENCE 187 

interviewed 288 boys, all of whom were fifteen 
years of age and over and who represented good 
homes — ^homes of culture and education — in about 
forty different cities and towns. The answers 
to my first question, "How old were you when 
you were first told by anyone about sex mat- 
ters?" is shown in the following tabulation 
and chart. 

Age 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 

No. 

boys 2 10 5 1 25 13 40 26 56 29 37 21 7 2 2 

My second question, "From whom did you 
first receive such information?" revealed the fol- 
lowing: 

From Mother 75 

" Father 9 

" Other adults 45 

" boys 144 

" Girls 15 

288 

My third question, "What was the character 
of the information, pure or impure?" brought 
out the fact that whenever the parent was the 
first teacher in the boy's school of life, the in- 
formation was naturally pure, but when the 
"other boy" was the instructor the information 
was of the vilest sort. It was only after twelve 
years of age, when older boys of the right sort 



188 



BOYOLOGY 




A6E,4 5 e 7 6 9_I0JI 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 

The age when boys received first information 

on matters op sex 

288 boys replied to the questionnaire 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE FENCE 189 

became Big Brothers, and saw the need of cor- 
rectional advice that the information given by 
boys was pure. The adults and parents came 
into the boy*s life too late. His mind was al- 
ready poisoned and his habits formed. One 
boy said, "When I was hardly out of the kinder- 
garten all kinds of impure jokes and information 
began to pour into my ears from the mouths of 
other boys. My father, when he found out my 
condition, informed me in a very direct and 
emphatic, though kindly way about the true 
facts and taught me to abhor rigidly even the 
slightest suggestion of impurity, but he came 
into my life too late." The schoolyard was the 
place where a ten-year-old boy found out the 
wrong side of life. A farm hand was the in- 
structor in evil for an eleven-year-old boy. An- 
other boy said, "My honest opinion is that the 
parents of today do not give the necessary 
information to their boys about such a vital 
matter. I know of many fellows who have 
fallen into immoral habits because their parents 
have not told them." 

The Young Men's Christian Association in 
one of our American cities, desiring to be of 
service to the parent as well as the boy, in the 
matter of sex instruction, sent the following 
letter to one thousand parents inclosing ad- 
dressed reply envelope: 



190 BOYOLOGY 

To the Fathers of our Boys. 
Subject ! — Sex Education. 

Dear Sir: The Educational Committee of the 
Boys' Division is desirous of obtaining the opinions 
of the parents on the subject of Sex Education. 
The CoHMnittee realizes that many parents are 
reluctant about giving their boys instruction in 
this subject and it is anxious to help them over- 
come this reluctance if possible. 

If the replies received on cards similar to the 
one inclosed, indicate that the parents are will- 
ing to give this instruction, the Committee may 
arrange to give a course of talks or readings to 
assist the parents. If, however, the returns 
indicate that the parents prefer to have their 
boys instructed by those who are thoroughly 
famiUar with every phase of the subject, the 
Committee will plan a course of talks and read- 
ings for the boys, dividing them into groups 
according to their physical development. 

It is the Committee's intention that all instruc- 
tion shall be based upon the sacredness of God's 
laws as exemplified in nature through reproduc- 
tion in plant, bird, fish, and animal life. Wher- 
ever the boy, through right thought, is led to 
make analogies in human life, his questions will 
be truthfully answered. All morbid details will 
be avoided in answering these questions and the 
boy's curiosity will be thoroughly satisfied. 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE FENCE 191 

We hope you will be prompt in filling in the 
inclosed card and in mailing same in the addressed 
envelope provided. 

The Educational Committee 

Boys' Division. 

A card was also inclosed upon which was 
printed the following: 



Please answer the following questions by 
marking an (X) in either column under Yes 
or No. 

1. Do you prefer to give all the Sex In- 

struction to your boy yourself? 

2. Are you willing to have your boy given 

Sex Instruction in accordance with 
the intentions of the Committee? 

3. Would you be willing to meet with 

other parents to discuss this subject? 

4. Do you feel that your boy knows all 

he ought to know about the subject? 



Yes No 



After a lapse of one week 105 replies were 
received or about 10 per cent of the number of 
parents addressed. 

The replies were as follows: 

To question No. 1 "yes" 7 "No" 90 8 made no reply 

" 2 " 99 " 6 
* 3 " 60 " 21 24 made no reply 

«( <« tf ^ t( ^ « Q^ J t< « « 

The replies received tell the same sad story 



192 BOYOLOGY 

of parental willingness to shift responsibility 
uix)n other shoulders for the instruction of their 
boys in matters of sex. The replies to No. 3 
reveal an attitude of indifference that is stag- 
gering, as well as appalling. 

In talking with parents upon this subject they 
exhibit an attitude of fear lest their boy be not 
old enough to understand. It is better for 
parents to tell the facts to their boy two years 
too early than ten minutes too late, for if the 
wrong boy comes into the boy's life ten minutes 
before father or mother becomes his confidential 
adviser it is too late. Already the author of the 
"language of the fence'* has poisoned his mind. 
The fact that one hundred and forty-four boys 
received their first information in sex matters 
from other boys instead of their parents is a 
serious indictment against parenthood. **0h, 
why didn't my parents tell me!" is the pitiful 
wail of the habit-boimd boy. "Ah, how for- 
tunate for me!" is the satanic reply of the quack 
who harvests a rich crop of unfortunate students 
of this fence language. Who is the real sinner, 
the boy or his parent.' 

"The City Beautiful" agitation has aroused 
civic conscience to such an extent that even if 
the bill board has not been done away with, it 
is at least better censored. In many cities or- 
dinances forbid the posting of vulgar show bills 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE FENCE 193 

or scenes depicting murder, but the "language 
of the fence," in the terms of advertising, is not 
yet as clean or as honest as it should be. False 
statements concerning food products and liquids 
are attractively presented on bill boards which 
the boy reads on his way to school or work. In 
many cities the bill board is still the corrupter 
of morals. Thrilling lithographs in front of 
moving-picture shows excite scores of boys to 
criminal acts. These are but other forms of 
"the language of the fence," greatly influencing 
the morals of every boy who stands and reads. 
Many sermons and heart-to-heart talks will be 
required before the boy will forget the language 
lesson of the fence. 

How can we abolish this school of "fence 
language.'^" The destruction of chalk or the 
voting of bill-board ordinances "won't do the 
trick." It can only be done through the boy 
himself. A movement for clean speech, clean 
sport, and clean living has been quietly influencing 
thousands of boys in our public schools. Just 
as boys are responsible for the existence of the 
language of the fence, so must they be made 
responsible for its abolishment. Already in 
many towns the "fence" has received a thorough 
scrubbing through a very simple process. A 
boy leader in the school gets another boy to 
stand with him on the following platform: 



194 BOYOLOGY 

I resolve to stand for clean speech, clean sport, and 
clean living, and will endeavor to spread these principles 
among my companions, and try to help my fellow students 
in every other possible way. 

Signed. 



Witnessed by. 
Date 



Wherever a group of determined boys have 
stood together upon this platform, the entire 
school has felt its influence, and where teachers, 
school directors, and city authorities have failed, 
the boys have succeeded in accomphshing a 
"clean up." 

The Japanese very cleverly teach three im- 
portant truths to their boys through the use 
of three monkeys known as "The Three Wise 
Monkeys.'* One monkey has covered his eyes 
with his hands and is called "See no evil," the 
second monkey is holding his hands over his 
ears and is called "Hear no evil," the third has 
his hands placed over his mouth and is called 
"Speak no evil." In this unique manner boys 
are taught the seriousness of mental photography 
and brain impressions through the lenses of the 
eye, and the recording power of the ear, as well 
as the lesson of controlled speech. 

What a wonderful thing is the eye! According 
to the findings of Prof. Tyndall, light analyzed 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE FENCE 195 

is compounded of the colors of the rainbow; the 
length of the longest light wave, the red, is thirty- 
nine one-thousandth of an inch. Light travels 
at the rate of 192,000 miles a second. Multiply 
the length of the wave of red hght by the rate 
of miles traveled by light in a second and you 
have 474 trillions of red waves that strike the 
eye every second. This wonderful as well as 
powerful lens is making brain impressions that 
eternity alone can erase. A very young child will 
follow a moving light with his eye, thus showing 
the early (perhaps the instinctive) tendency to 
connect sight proper and the muscular sensation. 

Pictures have always had an appeal. The 
child mind is able to understand pictures long 
before words. The words he hears are instinc- 
tively formed into internal pictures. "Let the 
eye have something to rest upon and his mental 
powers are relieved from the task of internal 
picture making."^ Here is the pedagogical value 
of the "Three Wise Monkeys." 

Boys have a great interest in pictures of 
human beings. Ninety-nine per cent of the 
drawings of very young children are of people, 
crude in detail, just a few strokes of the pencil. 
Adolescents pay much attention to details. This 
is evidenced in the drawings made by boys and 
girls of the high-school age seen in popular mag- 

1 Freeman, "The Use of lUustration," p. 16. 



196 BOYOLOGY 

azines and in the "Young People's Column" of 
metropolitan newspapers. Style is depicted in 
minutest detail, such as the latest collar, cut of 
coat or dress, combing of hair, etc. Imagination 
plays an important part in these iUustrations. 
"Adolescence is the golden age for picture-study." 
In these days of idealism it is Dr. G. Stanley 
Hall's opinion that "Art should not now be for 
art's sake, but for the sake of feeling and char- 
acter, life and conduct,"^ "such an opportunity 
for infecting the soul with vaccine of ideality, 
hope, optimism, and courage in adversity, will 
never come again. Art is the chief regulator 
of the heart, out of which are the issues of life." 

Those who would destroy boyhood know how 
to use pictures. A picture reaches to a boy's 
depths; and what he sees is very apt to repro- 
duce itself in an action. It is dm-ing the develop- 
ment of the sex instincts that the language of 
the obscene picture speaks in siren-like tones. 
The currents of new impulses may sweep him 
off his feet with wrong doing. 

Sane instruction in matters of sex cannot be- 
gin too soon. The questions of the child are 
the mother's opportunity. What to say, and 
how to say it, is the concern of both mother 
and father. "Secrecy," says Dr. Chadwick, "witJb 
its companion, prurient curiosity, is the cause 

2 Hall, "Adolescence," Vol. I, p. 186. 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE FENCE 197 

of much unrest and sin in later life." "As a 
man thinketh in his heart so is he" is particularly 
true of sex life, inasmuch as the sex organism is 
so peculiarly under the influence of the sym- 
pathetic nervous system, that system which re- 
sponds so strongly to thought and emotion. 

"Where did I come from?" is a racial question 
every boy repeats in various stages of his de- 
velopment. Too long the stork myth and 
the policy of repressing this vital question 
has prevailed, and in the boy's growing desire 
for a definite, honest answer, much misinforma- 
tion is gotten from those who are not squeamish, 
which is the cause of unnecessary sorrow and 
perpetual pain to the seeker after truth. Parental 
hypocrisy in sex matters has caused much wreck- 
age of boy life. The boy has the right to know 
the truth, for verily the truth shall make him 
free. The first teacher in the boy's school of life 
must be his mother. 



"Where have I come from, where did you pick me up?'* 
the baby asked its mother. 

She answered half crying, half laughing, and clasping 
the baby to her breast — 

"You were hidden in my heart as its desire, my darling. 

"You were in the dolls of my childhood's games; and 
when with clay I made the image of my god every morn- 
ing, I made and unmade you then. 

"You were enshrined with our household deity, in his 
worship I worshiped you. 

"In all my hopes and my loves, in my life, in the life 
of my mother you have lived. 



198 BOYOLOGY 

"In the lap of the deathless Spirit who rules our home 
you have been nursed for ages. 

"When in girlhood my heart was opening its petals, 
you hovered as a fragrance about it. 

"Your tender softness bloomed in my youthful limbs, 
like a glow in the sky before the sunrise. 

"Heaven's first darling, twin-born with the morning 
light, you have floated down the stream of the world's 
life, and at last you have stranded on my heart. 

"As I gaze on your face, mystery overwhelms me; you 
who belong to all have become mine. 

"For fear of losing you I hold you tight to my breast. 
What magic has snared the world's treasure in these 
slender arms of mine?" 

— The Crescent Moon 
by Rabindbanath Tagobe. 



It is a mother's privilege to translate the 
poetic into the scientific fact. Much publicity 
and discussion upon this question has produced 
a literature of available books written in terms 
readily understood. One of the best books to 
read to very young children is "Blossom Babies," 
by M. Louise Chadwick, M.D. Through the 
story of reproduction in flowers, insects, and 
animal life, the way of approach to later in- 
formation is made easier and as puberty ap- 
proaches the boy is ready to receive the biological 
facts. 

It is most unwise to put books which deal 
with sex life into the hands of a growing boy. 
Much of the value of such books is destroyed 
by "Prefaces," "Forewords to Parents," "Bibli- 
ographies," and advertisements of other books. 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE FENCE 199 

Nine times out of ten, the boy reads this informa- 
tion before he reads the book itself. A careful 
study of scores of books and hundreds of 
pamphlets revealed the truth of this statement, 
and a book for boys, free from everything except 
the message itself, is yet to be produced. It 
is much better to read the book yourself and 
then by word of mouth tell the truth and the facts 
in your own language, face to face, and eye to 
eye. 

When the story has been told, don't repeat 
it. Repetition makes the boy blase and hardened 
and sophisticated. I hope the time will never 
come when sex instruction will be incorporated 
in the curriculum of the public school. Sex 
instruction, if placed in the same curriculum 
with Latin, Algebra, and other school studies, 
will lose its effectiveness. Knowledge alone is 
not enough. Responsibility must be stirred and 
noble emotions must be aroused. The routine 
of the school system does not lend itself to this 
sympathetic, vital, and spiritualizing type of 
instruction. The home is the God appointed 
school for sex instruction. God, who holds 
the parent responsible for bringing the boy into 
the world, will hold that parent equally respon- 
sible for the boy's instruction as to how he came 
into the world. Parents who feel their inability 
to impart this important knowledge should learn 



900 BOYOLOGY 

how; it is a part of their business of being a 
parent. Mothers' Congresses, parent-teachers' 
associations, women's clubs and medical socie- 
ties are providing the way for parental instruction. 
It is too sacred a matter for parents to shift to 
the shoulders of another person or an institu- 
tion. 

Mother love must be explained to a boy by 
his father or his god-father. Tell him how for 
months he was a part of mother, how every morsel 
of food she ate helped to feed him, how in every 
step she took great care was exercised, how every 
book and picture was read and looked upon with 
relation to his well-being, for she was anxious 
that he come into the world without a spot or 
blemish. Tell him how there came a time when 
he was to be delivered, how mother's hfe hung 
in the balance, and how joy followed the pain of 
deUvery, as she looked upon his face for the first 
time and heard the cry that escaped from his hps, 
and there came into her heart and life a love that 
only mothers experience, a love that never leaves 
nor forsakes, a love that never lets go, a love that 
leads her to speak to her son in the following 
language of motherhood: 

"Do you know that your soul is of my soul such part 
That you seem to be fibre and core of my heart? 
None other can pain me as you, dear, can do; 
None other can please me or praise me as you. 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE FENCE 201 

•'Remember the world will be quick with its blame 
If shadow or stain ever darken your name. 
'Like mother, like son,' is a saying so true. 
The world will judge largely of mother by you. 

"Be yours, then, the task, if task it shall be. 
To force this proud world to do homage to me. 
Be sure it will say, when its verdict you've won, 
'She reaps as she sowed. Lo! this is her son.' " 

Love of this sort awakens within the boy a 
kind of chivalry or knightly devotion, which is 
a sure anchor in the whirlpool of sex consciousness. 

He should be taught to ignore the literature 
of the quack and to refuse books upon the sub- 
ject unless given to him by his parents. He 
should be taught the danger of stimulation of 
the sex hunger through certain forms of social 
pleasure such as "animal dances,*' "high-keyed" 
amusements and other types of harmful pleasure. 
He should be taught to look forward to the time 
when he will become a home maker, and shown 
how purity of life determines future happiness. 

A seventeen-year-old boy was traveling with 
Prof. John B. DeMotte in Germany. When 
they arrived at Heidelberg they climbed to the 
top of the cliff to view the ruins of the old castle. 
As they sat upon the castle wall, facing the 
setting sun, the boy, who was unusually quiet 
and thoughtful, turned to Prof. DeMotte and ex- 
claimed, "Right over there, where the sun is 



202 BOYOLOGY 

going down, is the girl I love, and I am keeping 
pure for her sake." 

Unless this kind of instruction is given, the 
influence of the "fence language" will cause the 
boy to "sow more wild oats in one night than 
he can reap in a life time, and his children will 
continue to reap the crop to the third and fourth 
generation." The boy in his teens needs to 
realize how his future is largely determined by 
his present deeds, so that when the temptation 
comes to "sow wild oats," he may hear the 
plea of the future child, so vitally given by 
Angela Morgan to the man of pleasure: 

"At the terrible door of your beautiful sin 
I am standing within; 
Your portal of rapture is fated for me 
In the harvest to be. 
Do you hearken my cry? 
It is I; it is I; 
I who suffer and weep 
For the revels you keep; 
I who struggle and plead 
For the body I need — 
Strong, splendid, and whole 
And fit for my soul! 

I plead that my blood may be cleanly and red; 
I plead that my tissues be cherished and fed. 
Wherever you enter, or early or late, 
There am I at the gate. 
Wait— think. 
On the brink 



THE LANGUAGE OF THE FENCE 203 

Of your perilous pleasure! 
What will it measure? 
What will it garner of anguish for me 
In the future to be? 
Don't you see, don't you know 
I must reap where you sow? 
You may revel tonight; 
But the poison, the blight. 
The terrible sorrow 

Are mine on the morrow."* 



• The Cosmopolitan, January, 1915. 



CHAPTER X 

Parental Delinquenct 

"At night returning, every labour sped. 
He sits him down, the monarch of a shed; 
Smiles by his cheerful fire, and round surveys 
His children's looks, that brighten at the blaze: 
"While his lov'd partner, boastful of her hoard. 
Displays her cleanly platter on the board." 

— Goldsmith — The Traveller 1. 191. 

The ideals of the city, the state, the nation, 
the school, and the church will never rise higher 
than the ideals of the home, for the home is 
the foundation of society as well as the most 
ancient of all God-ordained institutions. "No 
creature is so gregarious as man, and we can 
hardly conceive him except as a member of 
the family. . . . One of the best measures of 
domestication in animals or of civilization in 
man is the intensity of love of home. This is 
a very complex feeling and made up of many 
ties, hard to dissect, or even to enumerate. 
Kline attempts to analyze the factors of love 
of home, in order of their intensity, as follows: 
love of parents, scenery, house, familiar ways, 
freedom of opinion and conduct, relatives and 
friends, animals, pleasant memories, sympathy^ 
204 



PARENTAL DELINQUENCY 205 

etc. We also find specified the room, articles 
of furniture, the garden, hills, trees, rocks, 
meadow, streams, frankness of expression, leisure 
to do as one pleases, liberty to arrange things 
to one's taste. All these make up the content 
of that magic word, home, of which the hearth 
with its altar-fire is the heart. It inclines to 
settled habits of life, is the converse of the rov- 
ing instinct, and is largely woman's creation."^ 

The great problem demanding a satisfactory 
solution is the problem of maintaining the whole- 
some home ideals which make the American 
home the nation's bulwark. Life today is speeded 
to the eight-cylinder capacity, whether the scene 
of action be Fifth Avenue or the East Side. The 
ceaseless pursuit of wealth at the sacrifice of 
honesty, and at the expense of health and real 
happiness, the lowering of the morals of society 
through a double standard of morality, the 
false ambition of parents to force their children 
into maturity before the charm of childhood 
has even manifested itself, the struggle of pov- 
erty, overcrowded housing conditions in the 
modem cities, are all the evidences of a wrong 
standard of living and largely responsible for 
the spirit of imrest in human society. 

"Parents control the bodies and minds, the 
hearts and souls of their children, not so much 

1 Hall, "Adolescence," Vol. II, p. 375. 



206 BOYOLOGY 

by what their ancestors were as by what they 
themselves do and think," says Oppenheim. An- 
cestor worship will not vitally affect the present 
or the future generation unless the spirit of 
the past remains alive and is a dominating in- 
fluence in home making and character building. 
The spirit of the home maker who is conscious of 
responsibility will manifest itself in a kind of 
happiness and contentment found only in a 
real home, whether humble or pretentious. 

Somebody has said that homes are workshops 
into which God sends little babies for parents 
to fashion into men and women fit for His ser- 
vice in the great world's work, and yet how 
many home methods invite fatal disaster, as 
\he countless number of half-built human taber- 
nacles testify. "The three 'Modern Furies* are 
insanity, suicide, and divorce," says John Horace 
Lockwood. "The appalling rapid rise of the 
divorce rate is due to faulty training of children, 
morbid and unnatural views and habits of life, 
and exaggerated sex-consciousness. This is clearly 
shown by the uniformity with which insanity 
and suicide keep pace with the divorce court. 
Here are the figures: 

Suicide Persons divorced 

Insane in per 100,000 per 100,000 

Institutions Population Population 

In 1890 74,000 4.19 144 

In 1910 187,791 15. 216 



PARENTAL DELINQUENCY 207 

"The population of the United States in 1910 
was 46.77 per cent greater than in 1890, but 
the divorce rate had increased 50 per cent, the 
suicide rate 258 per cent, and, while there is no 
means of knowing the increased insanity rate, 
the number of inmates of institutions for the 
insane had jumped up 152 per cent."^ Accord- 
ing to recent statistics, fifty-one per cent of the 
boys in the reformatory schools of California 
have come there through the breaking up of 
homes by divorce. Many believe that this is 
due to the lack of fixed ideals and obedience in 
the bringing up of children, to fathers and 
mothers who have been delinquent in their respon- 
sibility, to a lack of "home" spirit, and the 
failure of parents to recognize the child of today 
as the home maker of tomorrow. Juvenile 
delinquency is a by-product of parental de- 
linquency. Juvenile Courts would be unneces- 
sary if parents would stop letting out the training 
of their children to others. 

Parental delinquency does not always mean 
the failure to provide clothes, food, shelter, and 
an education, but rather the failure to recognize 
the rights of boyhood and girlhood as well as 
their potentialities; the failure to give sympathetic 
companionship; to give time to answering the 
serious questions; and to give love to heart- 

2 The Mothers' Magazine, May, 1914, p. 9. 



208 BOYOLOGY 

hungry adolescents. "It may be true that *man 
is the architect of his own future,' yet the parent 
is the architect of the child's character, and 
society is coming more and more to hold the 
parent accountable."^ Fathers cannot have a 
vital part in the business of building their boys 
into right kind of men by the use of the "absent 
treatment" method. There is much truth, even 
if written in the vein of satire, in the following 
verses printed id the London Sunday School Times: 

"He was a dog 

But he stayed at homep 
And guarded the family night and day. 
He was a dog 

That didn't roam. 
He lay on the porch or chased the stray — 

The tramps, the hen away; 
For a dog's true heart for that household beat 
At morning and evening, in cold and heat. 
He was a dog. 

"He was a man 

And didn't stay 
To cherish his wife and his children fair. 
He was a man. 

And every day 
His heart grew callous, its love-beats rare. 
He thought of himself at the close of day. 
And, cigar in his fingers, hurried away 
To the club, the lodge, the store, the show. 
But — he had a right to go, you know! 
He was a man." 



» The Mother*' Magazine, October, 1914, p. 7. 



PARENTAL DELINQUENCY 209 

Much could be said also in criticism of mothers 
who become so absorbed in the uplift of other 
people's children and humanity in general that 
they wofuUy neglect their own flesh and blood. 

Remembering Robert Burns' line, "A > chiel's 
amang you taking notes," a questionnaire was 
sent to a number of boys, requesting frank 
replies to the following questions: 

1. What one thing do you hke best about 
your father? 

2. What one thing would you like to have 
your father do that he does not do? 

3. What one thing do you like best about 
your mother? 

4. Wliat one thing would you like to have 
your mother do that she does not do? 

The replies from 259 boys from good homes 
are significant of the way a boy "takes notes." 

The replies to question Number 1 were as 
follows: 

"Honesty.;' 

"That he is a Christian man." 
"Interest in my doings." 
"He treats me good." 
"His generosity." 

"His cheerfulness and kindness at times." 
"His fatherly love for the children." 
"His willingness to give me advice on any 
subject." 

"Shows me things that will help me in life." 
"His help and knowledge in my work." 



210 BOYOLOGY 

"His purity in talking." 

"He is like an older brother." 

"His temperance." 

"Anxious to give me the best of education." 

"He never si)eaks disrespectfully of any 
woman." 

"Patience." 

"He is such a good comrade ^ 

"He is my best friend and chum." 

"He treats me as a brother." 

"He lets me do anything that I want that is 
good and clean." 

"He is a home-loving man." 

"He gives me a square deal." 

"His clean living." 

"He gives me money." 

"His help to support me." 

"He does not smoke or drink." 

Comradeship, cheerfulness, interest in the boy's 
doings — in short it was the way father lived 
rather than his preaching which made the deep- 
est impression upon the boy. 

The replies to question Number 2 were: 

"I would like to have him go to church." 
"Not to do any different because I have the 
best father a fellow can have." 
"Stop smoking." 

"I would like to have him play games with me." 
**To be a father to me in all ways." 
"Join the church." 

"Hold the family to better religious attitude." 
"Talk with me." 



PARENTAL DELINQUENCY 211 

"Give his heart to Christ." 

"Be home Sundays." 

"Enter into social Ufe." 

"Not to be so close with his money and be a 
little more broad minded." 

"Pay more attention to the Y. M. C. A." ^^ 

"I would like to have him take a vacation." 

"He drinks intoxicating liquors at times and 
I wish he would do away with it." 

"Help me understand something of his business 
and teach me to transact business as he does." 

"Be more of a chum." 

"Take more interest in athletics which I love." 

"He's all right as far as I know." 

"Be able to hold his temper better." 

"Be more industrious." 

"Show more interest in me." 

Actions, the right kind of living, form the basis 
of the boy's desire for his father. "Watch your 
step" would be an excellent cautionary signal 
for fathers. 

The replies to question Number 3 were as 
follows: 

"Her loving care for me." 

"Her interest in everything I do." 

"Her unfailing care and kindness." 

"She is a good mother." 

"She is a good Christian." 

"Her tireless working for the uplift of the 
home." 

"Knows how to care for us when sick." 

"Her love and a person to confide in." 

"Forgiveness." 



212 BOYOLOGY 

"Her loving example." 

"Knowledge." 

"That she brought me into the world to find 
the love and happiness of the fellowship of Jesus 
Christ." 

"Her self-sacrificing manner." 

"She is modest yet modem." 

"She confides in me." 

"She tries so much to please me." 

"Her patience and loving-kindness." 

"Her love for us kids." 

"Good natured." 

"She is so thoughtful." 

"She tries to make home what it should be." 

"Kindness." 

"She has good common sense." 

"Her devotion toward me." 

"Kind, the best mother any boy would want." 

"She is not in society.^' ' 

**Her never-failing faith in God" (father dead). 

**That she is not cross." 

"She stands up for me." 

**Her hospitaUty." 

These are the silent ways in which a real mother 
guides her boy to manhood, and because 

"She has taught him matters of honor his part. 
Her influence gentle is deep in his heart." 

DOLSON. 

The replies to question Number 4 were: 

"Nothing; I have the best mother any boy 
can have." 

"Go to church." 



PARENTAL DELINQUENCY 213 

**To be a mother to me in all ways." 

"I would like to have her belong to the King's 
Daughters in my church." 

"A better religious attitude in the home." 

"Join the church." 

"Think more of herself." 

"Give her heart to Christ." 

"Take more part in mid-week prayer meeting." 

"To rest Sundays and do no work." 

**To go out to see some of her friends." 

"Npt pay so much attention to trivial things." 

"To have her not work so hard." 

"Be just a trifle more equal in her attention 
to my brother and me; she favors the younger 
boy slightly in many ways." 

"Stop worrying." 

"Recognize the faults of her family." 

"Let me have a little more freedom in the 
evenings." 

"Be less industrious in cleaning." 

"Not be so nervous." 

"Be a better housekeeper." 

"Take more time for herself." 

"Get out into the air more." 

"Be more thoughtful in her ways toward us 
as children." 

"Be neater." 

"Treat me as if I was not a baby." 

If mothers would only give their boys an 
opportunity for ^Tieart-to-heart" confession, not 
fault finding, but expressions of genuine love 
and interest, many anxious moments would never 
happen. 



214 BOYOLOGY 

•*0h the years we waste and the tears we waste. 
And the work of our head and hand, 
Because of the mother who did not know 
(And did not care that she did not know) 
And did not understand." 

The moral standard of boys may be improved 
by improving the moral standards of parents, 
for as Judge John H. Mayo of the Manhattan 
Children's Court says, "Once operated, the prin- 
ciple will automatically work out its own salva- 
tion — child bettering parent, parent bettering 
child — and in turn will extend its influence to 
the next possible circle or combination of child 
and parent, or in other words, the home, which 
is in fact, the *circle' figuratively and literally." 

The incivility and discourtesy too often dis- 
played by boys is but the reflection of home life. 
Boys are clever imitators. Perhaps father does 
not always extend to mother the courteous con- 
sideration which a father would naturally expect 
of others toward his wife. Oral teaching is non- 
effective unless backed up by example. The 
occasional family "scene" does much damage, 
but the daily "call down" breeds discontent 
which destroys the ideal home life. As the 
sensitive film fastens the picture exposed upon 
it by the camera lens, so the boy's eyes drink 
in every action, and it is most difficult for him 
to understand why father and mother should 



PARENTAL DELINQUENCY 215 

not be fair and just and considerate of each 
other. 

"As a barometer gauges the pressure of at- 
mosphere so do boys display to the outside world 
all the elements that characterize the more in- 
timate family life,*' says a social writer. "Com- 
pany manners are an ill-fitting garb when a 
healthy young body is not accustomed to such 
a garment for every day wear, and for that reason 
boys are often embarrassing to their parents." 
The little or big barometer has displayed the 
fact that politeness is not the ordinary rule of 
the family life. How easy it is to point out 
the "only child," the "bully," the "spoiled boy." 
"Respect thy father and mother" is an injunc- 
tion for parents as well as for children. "Old- 
time courtliness and graciousness of manner have 
been gradually disappearing before the brusque 
way of our modern life," says Hope Hammond. 
"Family ties are dissolving, and it seems we are 
leaving behind us the sweetest thing that this 
old world has given us — fellowship — and fellow- 
ship, in its deepest sense, is a relation between 
mothers and fathers and their own children." 

Sometimes I think that a healthy, normal 
specimen of a boy is made up of fifty per cent 
noise and fifty per cent dirt. The boy who is 
never noisy and never gets dirty is abnormal, 
and should be taken to a physician at once. 



216 BOYOLOGY 

From the moment of his entrance upon the 
stage of life until the final exit, noise is a part 
of man's normal makeup. Observe a group of 
small boys playing baseball — three fourths of the 
time is sp>ent in noisy scrapping. The indi- 
vidualistic instincts are in control. Team work 
is a dormant quality. The high school boy has 
organized his noise into a school yell, which he 
uses to spur the team on to victory. Individual- 
ism is here merged into the larger group of 
humans. What would the Harvard- Yale football 
game be without noise, without its cheering 
sections, without its battery of cheer leaders? 
Noise is psychologically necessary to the success 
of the game. 

If, however, a nervous, grouchy father comes 
home in the evening, and this small edition of 
noise has on hand an unexpended surplus and 
gives even as much as a "yip," at once there is 
an explosion on the part of father and the boy 
is suppressed. Again, if the boy should happen 
to be in one of his rare moods of quiet, mother 
anxiously inquires, **What is the matter, Charlie, 
you're so quiet? Don't you feel well?" If he 
is noisy, he is called down; if he is quiet, he 
causes anxiety! What is a boy to do? Why, 
he instinctively seeks the gang, that coterie of 
sympathetic souls, who have many secrets, nu- 
merous codes of mysterious signs and calls, and 



PARENTAL DELINQUENCY 217 

whose loyalty is the admiration of all social 
service experts and church workers. More 
opportunity at home for sane expression and 
less insane repression would save many boys 
from the evil influence of misled gangs. 

When the home-coming of father becomes an 
event to be looked forward to with delight, in- 
stead of anticipated with fear, on the part of 
the boy, there will take place a wonderful change 
in our rapidly deteriorating American home life. 
Making a Hving has become so problematic that 
many fathers are failing to take enough time to 
make a life, either for themselves or their boy. 
Will the time ever come when a father will 
close his oflSce door at night and say: "Good 
night, business, you can't go home with me. I 
have a boy who needs me tonight more than 
you do. So long until morning;" or the industrial 
worker lay down his tools at the close of the 
day's work and say: "Good night, old pard, 
here's where we part. The kids at home are 
looking for their dad. I'll see you in the morn- 
ing"? When that time does come, home, be it 
ever so humble, will then become in fact, the 
sweetest place on earth, instead of a place of 
jars and contentions. 

Not all homeless boys live in the slums. The 
most homeless boy in the world is the boy who, 
from the moment of his birth, is put into the 



218 BOYOLOGY 

hands of a nurse, from a nurse goes to a gov- 
erness, from a governess to a private tutor, from 
a private tutor to a private school, from a pri- 
vate school to a private camp, then on to college; 
he has plenty of houses to live in, but no home. 
Money can buy him luxm-ies and conveniences 
and a following, but can never buy genuine 
heart-love which only a father and mother can 
supply. A philanthropic trustee of a well-con- 
ducted foundling asylum told me that ninety per 
cent of the babies who die in the asylums, die 
not from the want of food and careful nursing, 
but from the lack of "mothering," that peculiar 
something which mothers, alone, can furnish 
their babies. 

Boys and dirt have an affinity for each other. 
The short-trousered boy looks upon soap as an 
oppressor. He will never be accused of wearing 
out doormats, for he is an expert in doormat 
evasion. Mothers worry much over the dirt he 
brings into the house, and cari>ets will show 
the effect of his hard usage — but boys are more 
valuable than carpets, and if the latter wear 
out they can be replaced or done away with; 
not so with a lost boy; he is a different proposi- 
tion and not so easily handled. Many a boy 
has been driven away from home because of the 
continual war waged with broom and duster. 

This is not a plea for a slovenly, dirty boy or 



PAEENTAL DELINQUENCY 219 

a slovenly, dirty home, but for sane sanitation 
that saves boys, even if it does ruin carpets. 
This dirt period lasts but a short time in a boy's 
life, for almost in the twinkling of an eye he 
merges into the fastidious period. It usually 
occurs on a Saturday night when he evolves 
from the short pant stage into the realm of long 
trouserdom, and on Sunday morning he appears 
in the garb of a real man — long trousers and all 
the "fixings." Solomon in all his glory was not 
arrayed like one of these long-trousered adolescent 
youth. 

It is at this period that the boy confuses 
mannishness with manliness. He is inclined 
toward the vices rather than the virtues. Father 
should now be his chum and deftly steer him 
clear of the shoals of life. 

"It is a wise father that knows his own boy" 
is an old saying containing much truth, but 
conditions have changed in such a conspicuous 
way that today it is a wise son that knows his 
own father, intimately, lovingly, and with ac- 
curacy. Too often the boy is compelled to go 
to others outside the home for advice. A boy 
wanted to talk with someone about a life problem, 
so he sought the Boys' Work Secretary of an 
Association in the Middle West. Before the 
secretary suggested a way out, the question was 
asked, "What is thought of the matter at home?" 



220 BOYOLOGY 

"Well, Mamma thinks thus and so, and Papa 
don't give a darn." Very little poetry but much 
truth. It would be well for fathers to keep the 
following in mind: 

"It is good to have money 
And the things that money can buy. 
But it's good, too, to check up once in a while 
And make sure you haven't lost 
The things that money can't buy." 

For father "not to care" is the rankest kind 
of injustice to the boy as well as a glaring form 
of parental dehnquency. Hugh Latimer once 
said, "He who cannot give justice to a child 
will never be just with himself." 

No institution can ever take the place of home. 
The boy's first and foremost need is the sym- 
pathetic companionship of fathers and mothers. 
He should not be "servantized," for no hireling, 
however high-priced and discreet, can be as 
good a companion as father or mother. Enter 
into his feelings, respect his "crazes," share his 
enthusiasm over sports, listen seriously to his 
troubles, enjoy the out-of-doors with him, treat 
him with respect, give him a distinct place and 
part in the family life, encourage team work, 
trust him. An eminent divine said in an address: 
"The boy wants to find in his home, not a dor- 
mitory, or club, but a place where all the home 
sentiments are blessed and dominant. He also 



PARENTAL DELINQUENCY 221 

wants consistency. No deception need to be 
tried on him. He also looks for piety in his 
home, also simplicity; that is, he wants it to be 
simply a home. He looks for the kind of piety 
which means the recognition of that Other One 
who is called the great Father, through grace 
said before meals and the observance of the old- 
fashioned virtue — family prayers." 

Dean Bosworth hopefully writes: "I believe we 
are on the eve of a great revival of family wor- 
ship, not the old type, perhaps, formal and per- 
functory, but simple, brief, frank, and natural. It's 
a great thing for children to hear their fathers 
pray." Here is the cure for parental delinquency 
— a return to a normal home life, where love 
rules supreme, where mutual sharing of joy and 
sorrow is recognized, where family worship is 
natural, and where parental honor and respect 
is paid by children and the rights of children are 
honored and respected by parents. 

The Family 

"Two great, strong arms; a merry way; 
A lot of business all the day; 
And then an evening frolic gay. 

That's Father. 
A happy face and sunny hair; 
The best of sweetest smiles to spare; 
The one you know is always there. 

That's Mother. 



222 BOYOLOGY 

A bunch of lace and ru£By frocks; 

A Teddy-bear; a rattle-box; 

A squeal; some very wee pink socks. 

That's Baby. 
A lot of noise; a suit awry; 
A wish for candy, cake and pie. 
My grammar may be wrong, but, my! 

That's me!" 

— B. E. W. 



CHAPTER XI 

Skedaddling from Sunday School 

"Man am I grown, a man's work must I do. 
Follow the deer? follow the Christ, the King. 
Live pure, speak true, right wrong, follow the King — 
Else, wherefore born?" 

— Tennyson. 

Thus spake Gareth of old. The twentieth 
century youth, however, seldom gets beyond the 
first four words — "Man am I grown," for the 
ideals of life have somewhat changed, and he 
is inclined to follow the crowd in its mad search 
for pleasure and financial success. Gareth 's ideals 
are still the ideals of the Sunday school and they 
clash with worldly ideals, so he "skedaddles." 

Skedaddle means to run away. It is taken 
from the Greek word "skedannumi" meaning to 
retire tumultuously. In Scotland "skedaddle" is 
used in the sense of spilling. If we are to take 
seriously the reports which come from what are 
considered reliable sources, older boys are liter- 
ally retiring from Sunday school — if not tumul- 
tuously, they are at least "spilling" out. One 
of the largest Protestant denominations recently 
reported a loss of thirty-one thousand children 
223 



224 BOYOLOGY 

from the Sunday school in one year. This start- 
ling statement raised the query — Why? Accord- 
ing to the findings of the Commission for the 
Adolescent Period appointed by the International 
Sunday School Association the proportion of boys 
between 13 and 16 years of age, and that of 
girls of the same age who dropped out of Sunday 
school was 62 per cent, from 17 to 19 years of 
age, 77 per cent. In other words, 62 out of every 
100 younger boys — 13 to 16 — and 77 out of 
every 100 older boys— 17 to 19— "skedaddle" 
from the Sunday school at the time when they 
need this anchorage most. Since the banishment 
of definite moral and religious training from our 
public schools and higher schools of education, 
particularly those supported by state funds, the 
only remaining institution for definite religious 
instruction is the Sunday school. Pres. W. H. 
P. Faunce makes this significant statement: 

"In the exclusion of religious instruction from 
the public schools and the failure of the church 
to meet the consequent demand upon it for 
religious education, I see a problem, the gravity 
of which it is impossible to exaggerate. Our 
National peril is that the supremely important 
task of our generation will fall between the church 
and the state and will be ignored by both. Mil- 
lions are for this reason growing up in America 
today without any genuine religious training. If 



TOO BIG FOR SUNDAY SCHOOL 225 

the home and the church shirk their responsi- 
bility, our people will be in fifty years, a nation 
without religion, i. e., a nation disintegrating 
and dying. "^ It is therefore important that the 
cause of this "spilling" should be located. To 
get first-hand information the following question 
was put to several thousand boys in conferences 
of older boys, held in connection with the Men 
and Religion Movement: "Why don't boys be- 
tween 15 and 20 years attend Sunday school?" 
Their answers, in the order of the largest number 
of replies, were as follows: 

"Too big and too old to go." 

"Sunday school not interesting." 

"Lessons uninteresting." 

"Sunday school too *kiddish.' " 

"Other attractions like *moving pictures.' " 

"Not interested." 

"Nothing to do." 

"Only for girls." 

"Other boys make fun of them." 

"Indifference." 

"Feel it unnecessary." 

"Don't like women leaders." 

"Too lazy to go." 

"Not required by parents." 

"No older boy classes." 

"Not invited to go." 

"Too tired." 

"Parents don't go." 



Faunce, "Religious Education Association" address. 



226 BOYOLOGY 

*T)on't want to go." 

"Good enough now." 

"Know it aU." 

**Teacher too strict." 

"Old-fashioned ideas taught." 

"Church service enough." 

'Teachers don't understand older boys." 

"They outgrow it; teachers leave them." 

"Absence of social life." 

*The *rest of the bunch' don't go." 

"Boys' sentiments are choked by teachers." 

**Teachers irregular in attendance." 

The majority of boys seemed to think that 
they were too old and too big to attend Sunday 
school. An elder in a Presbyterian church once 
said, **We have lost a generation of men from 
our church." 

"How do you account for it.'^" 

"Years ago we let the boys that are now men 
slip out of our Sunday schools." 

The big boy is a problem and for that reason 
is all the more interesting. Sunday schools 
which have tackled the problem intelligently and 
in a statesmanlike manner have found that, like 
all problems, it has a solution. No "big" boy 
wants to be classified with the "kids." It is 
not because of a lack of interest in religion that 
he drops out, but largely because of misclassi- 
fication. Childish songs do not appeal to him, 
and there are op>ening exercises which cause 



TOO BIG FOR SUNDAY SCHOOL 227 

irritation, so he usually waits on the outside 
until the agony, as he terms it, is over. This 
waiting outside usually makes his real exodus 
from the school easy. "The average boy is 
short on long prayers, long sermons, and long 
faces," and he tires, as well as retires, quickly 
when these "virtues" are prominent in services 
and worshipers. 

Another "Why" is, that the "gang" or the 
rest of the "bunch" don't go. If Sunday school 
attendance is unpopular with his gang, his 
loyalty to the standards of the gang is stronger 
than his loyalty to the school. The gang, as a 
rule, are hedonic; that is, they regard enjoyment 
as the chief good in life. They are not passive 
but active during this period of "hedonhood"; 
the motto "Have a Good Time" governs their 
actions. This is the reason why trouble is always 
brewing in the older boys' class. Their inter- 
pretation of a good time is different from that 
of the teacher and superintendent. "Hedonists" 
are made up of two parts impulse to one part 
reason, and therefore go in the direction of the 
strongest pull. If the gang says, "Let's go fishing," 
why fishing they go. To capture the gang and 
line them up for active service is the solution. 

Inefficient teachers is another "Why." A 
teacher who is irregular in attendance soon dis- 
covers he has no class to teach. A boy quickly 



228 BOYOLOGY 

loses interest and is gone. Some teachers treat 
a boy as if he were a machine rather than a hfe. 
True, he is fearfully and wonderfully made, but 
he is not an automaton. "Boys will not be 
mechanically filled on Sundays from a teacher's 
big *hopper-head.' " The boy soon tires even of 
talking machines. A carelessly prepared lesson 
is easily recognized by a wide-awake boy. He 
is an X-ray machine and he can i>enetrate into 
the very depths of a teacher. Nothing escapes 
his eyes. A teacher who loses his temper will 
soon lose his boys. "A misfit teacher ere long 
means a missing boy." Boys are attracted by a 
personality rather than by an institution or an 
abstract principle, and as some one has wisely 
said, "The teacher who does not enter in spirit 
the strange *Big Boy world,' see there what he 
sees, and feel, as nearly as possible, what he 
feels, and then try to interpret to him the mean- 
ing all these things hold for him, will lose him." 
Much depends upon the teacher if older boys 
are to be kept in the Sunday school. 

The irrehgious atmosphere and indifferent re- 
ligious influence of some homes is another "Why." 
Father and many of the business men do not 
go to Sunday school, why should he.'* "Stepping 
in the steps of father" is not so much a fancy as 
a fact. When father says "Come" instead of 
"Gro," more boys will step in the path to the 



TOO BIG FOR SUNDAY SCHOOL 229 

Sunday school blazed by fathers, instead of 
skedaddling away in the opposite direction. 
"How shall we keep our older boys?" was once 
asked at a conference. "Build a wall of men be- 
tween them and the door'* was the reply. If this 
wall be made up of fathers, so much the stronger. 

Criticism or active opposition is another pa- 
rental "Why'* that is responsible for scores of 
boys leaving the Sunday school. Criticism of 
minister, church, Sunday school, superintendent 
or teacher which some boys hear in some homes 
loosens the boy's grip on all things religious. 
Church gossip in home conversation paralyzes 
many a Sunday school's chance to hold and help 
the boy." 

Lack of definite things to do is another "Why." 
The Sunday school that is a "society for sitting 
still" will soon find many vacant chairs which 
were once occupied by growing boys. Youth 
is a period of "doing things." There is a lack 
of the appeal for service demanding sacrifice. 
The boy is an earnest seeker after goodness, but 
despises the "goody-goody." To come Sunday 
after Sunday and hear about the "good, the beau- 
tiful and the true" does not find a ready response 
in the heart-blood that is coursing through his 
veins and in the tremendous energy stored up 
in his body throbbing for some definite form of 
expression. 



230 BOYOLOGY 

Irreverence for the Sabbath is another reason 
"Why." One of America's greatest sins is irrever- 
ence; irreverence for the Bible, the Church, the 
ministry; irreverence of children for parents, of 
younger for older, of Christians for sacred things. 
"No Sabbath, no worship; no worship, no religion; 
no religion, no morals; no morals, then — pandemo- 
nium" is the deduction made by an observing 
writer. The "Automobile" Sunday is a poor 
substitute for the Puritan Sabbath, for while 
the latter was perhaps devoid of joy, the former 
is surely not a day of rest. Boys are whirled 
away by parents in automobiles to some pop- 
ular resort or distant parts, stuffed with food 
and excitement, and brought back late at night 
physically, mentally, and morally "tired out." 
Only one experiment with this new form of 
Sunday excitement is required to make the 
Sunday school seem tame ever after. 

Modern sensationalism is an irresistible pulling 
force. The bulky, ill-smelling, poorly printed 
Sunday paper invades the home at an early 
hoiu*, and the boy is soon lost in the mess, for 
it is indeed too often a queer "conglomeration 
of hideous colors, crude drawings and cheap 
humor." "They are the unfunniest pictures 
ever conceived by the mind of man," says Lind- 
sey Swift. "It is impossible to describe the 
vulgarity and inanity of these drawings and 



TOO BIG FOR SUNDAY SCHOOL 231 

colorings." "These pictures," says The Nation, 
"are more tragic than comic and more barbaric 
than either." A Kbrarian says: "They are a cheap 
travesty of real fun. The chief motifs are physi- 
cal pain and deceit. They make fun of old age, 
physical infirmities, of other races and religions 
and undermine respect for law and authority." 
G. Stanley Hall says that the Sunday news- 
paper causes those who read it to "strike" the 
key note of the day on a very low level. The 
publicist, the journalist, the educator, the min- 
ister, all agree that pictures of this sort produce 
a low standard of life values. 

Cheap motion picture entertainments on the 
Sabbath attract many older boys into a kind of 
environment which dulls all the ideals taught 
in the Sunday school he may have attended 
earlier in the day and takes the edge off any 
zest he might otherwise have for things religious. 
It is hard to throw off the spell of the "Movies" 
and easy to cast away the influence of the Sun- 
day school. 

Industrialism which robs a boy of his Satur- 
day afternoon of recreation and forces him into 
Sunday pleasure is another "Why." Many 
older boys are literally worn out at the end of 
the week because of the grind of office, store, or 
factory, and Sunday is the only time they have 
to re-create and regain vitality. Sunday also 



BOYOLOGY 

is a profitable day for the soda fountains, and 
hundreds of older boys are lost to the Sunday 
school because of their engagements to dispense 
liquid refreshments to the tired and thirsty "rest- 
seekers." A "day of rest" is a misnomer to the 
victims of Sunday industrialism. 

Another "Why" is a peculiar kind of modern 
skepticism which blatantly derides everything 
that is religious. The older boy who is just 
beginning to be independent in his thinking 
hears this cheap, street-corner scoffing at religion 
and sacred things and his whole view of life 
becomes poisoned. His reasoning faculties have 
not yet matured sufficiently to determine for 
himself the difference between intellectuality and 
slander. With this kind of conversation pouring 
into his ears six days of the week, his attitude 
toward the Sunday school is not friendly, and it 
requires a strong personality and a program full 
of sane intellectualism to counteract this vicious 
influence. 

Failure to understand the older boy is per- 
haps the greatest "Why." A superintendent 
tactlessly separated a class of fifteen older boys 
into two classes, without consulting them, with 
the result that the enrolment of the school was 
reduced by fifteen. After considerable persuasion 
of friends and some coercion of parents five of 
the boys returned to the school. A sympathetic 



TOO BIG FOR SUNDAY SCHOOL 233 

man teacher succeeded in interesting and holding 
the class and it grew to ten boys. Just when 
this class reached its height a second time this 
same superintendent repeated his action and 
separated the class. It took a conference between 
the pastors, the teacher, and the ten boys to 
win them back to the school. Gangs refuse to 
be separated and a failure to understand this 
by-law of boy life is fatal. 

InsuflScient time during the Sunday school 
period for the study of the lesson is another 
"Why." Older boys enjoy a discussion, but 
the time given does not permit of this interest- 
holding method. In the Child Welfare Exhibit 
held in New York several years ago, the follow- 
ing statement printed upon a huge standard 
impressed me very much: "Thirty minutes a 
week for religious instruction in Protestant 
churches, whereas in the day school the instruc- 
tion in mathematics would be equivalent to 
forty-one years of Sunday school instruction." 
When the significance of this statement is realized 
we wonder that so few boys have "skedaddled" 
instead of so many. Even this thirty minutes 
is often frittered away and many times seems 
difficult to occupy fully. If the boy has added 
to this thirty minutes an hour's study of the 
Bible in a Young Men's Christian Association, 
as compared with the time spent in the secular 



234 BOYOLOGY 

schools, he is receiving but a small proportion 
of the religious education which will fit him to 
live not only upon this earth, but for eternity. 
"Only thirty minutes.** How many teachers 
look upon this thirty minutes as a supreme 
opportunity? 

Many Sunday schools are not yet aware of 
the seven days a week hold upon the boy and 
therefore make no provision for his week-day 
interests. There are one hundred and one varie- 
ties of activities for boys which may be legit- 
imately developed by the Sunday school. While 
church vestries and Sunday school rooms were 
not erected to abuse, yet their efficient use re- 
mains to be demonstrated. 

How to stem the out-going tide of boys from 
the Sunday school will be discussed in the next 
chapter. There are many problems to consider. 
The youth looks forward. What he shall do in 
life is a question of vital concern to him. The 
Sunday school must give him that inspiration 
and counsel or else he will seek elsewhere. If 
a boy is lost to the Sunday school he is lost to 
the Church and to society. 

BROTHER, SAVE THE BOY 

"Brother, save the boy — 
The boy of the early teens. 
Thirteen on to sixteen years. 



TOO BIG FOR SUNDAY SCHOOL 235 

Land of strange, foreboding fears, 
Land of heartaches, sighs, and tears — 
Save the boy. 

"Brother, save the boy — 
The boy of the early teens. 
Boy no longer, boyhood gone, 
Now approaching manhood's dawn. 
Adolescent brain and brawn — 
Save the boy. 

"Brother, save the boy — 

The boy of the early teens. 
Immature, emotions rife. 
Choppy waves on lake of life. 
Time of stress and storm and strife — 

Save the boy. 

"Brother, save the boy — 

The boy of the early teens, 
Growing fast and faster still. 
Stomach like a sausage-mill. 
Lack of judgment, stubborn will — 

Save the boy. 

"Brother, save the boy — 
The boy of the early teens. 
Love for freedom, love of might. 
Love of justice, 'honor bright,' 
Love of food and fun and fight — 
Save the boy.'* 

— Raffety. 



CHAPTER Xn 

Stemming the Tide 

"There ia a tide in the affairs of men. 
Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune; 
Omitted, all the voyage of their life 
Is bound in shallows and in miseries." 

— Shakespeare. 

Just as truly there is a tide in the affairs of 
the Sunday school, which, if taken at the flood, 
will permanently hold the boy, but if omitted, 
the older boys, at least, will silently pass out 
into life's ocean like ships without rudders. In 
eight years 11,000,000 scholars passed through 
the Sunday schools of the United States without 
manifesting any definite decision for the Chris- 
tian life.^ While we do not believe that every 
scholar who gave up Sunday school attendance 
had a moral decline, yet it is safe to say that 
they were unable to resist the waves of tempta- 
tion, which buffeted them from every side, with 
the same spirit of confidence and faith as in the 
days when they were supported by the moral 
strength of Sunday school attendance. A Brook- 

1 Statistics 12th Int. S. S. Con., Louisville, Ky., 1908. 
236 



STEMMING THE TIDE 237 

lyn judge in sentencing a young man of nineteen 
to a term in Elmira for burglary said: "Of all 
the undesirable professions, that of burglary is 
the worst. No matter how good a burglar you 
may be, you will be caught and sent to prison 
sooner or later. I have seen your friends who 
wished to speak to me about you and I find that 
all attempts to have you go to Sunday school 
have failed. In the five years I have been sitting 
on this bench I have had two thousand seven 
hundred boys before me for sentence, and not 
one of them was an attendant of a Sunday 
school. Had you gone there I am sure you would 
not be before me today." 

In 1910 appeared a statement by a social 
worker, regarding the chances of a boy's going 
astray under modern living conditions, which 
challenges not only attention but thought. His 
deductions were as follows: 

Penitentiary 1 to 240 

Tramps 1 to 300 

Drunkards 1 to 13 

Vicious 1 to 17 

Couple these deductions with the experience 
of those who come daily in contact with the 
misery and crime of life as seen in the police 
courts, and you have presented for serious con- 
sideration a condition and not a theory, which 



«38 BOYOLOGY 

religious organizations cannot ignore nor lay on 
the table for future palaverings. 

The same boys who were questioned as to the 
excuses and reasons older boys give for not 
attending Sunday school, were asked the ques- 
tion, '*Why do older boys go to Sunday school 
and remain there?" From hundreds of replies 
written and verbal we give the following: 

"Personality and attachment for teacher." 

"Got the habit." 

"Cordial greeting." 

"Was given something to do." 

"Organized classes." 

"Athletics." N 

"Interesting discussions." 

"Parents' wish." 

"Desire for religious teachings." 

"Meets their ideals." 

"Socials." 

"Because of nice girls." 

"Because of music." 

"Employment Bureau." 

"Graded lessons." 

"Men teachers." 

"Loyalty to the class." 

"Attendance rewards." 

"Clubs." 

"Like it." 

"Driven to it." 

"Interesting talks." 

The Sunday schools which considered the above 
in their policy and program of work succeeded in 



STEMMING THE TIDE 239 

stemming the outgoing tide of boys to the extent 
of 43 per cent of boys between thirteen and six- 
teen years, and 44 per cent between seventeen 
and nineteen years. A serious effort is being 
made to understand the boy better and to pro- 
vide intelligently for his moral and religious 
growth through the Sunday school. The returns 
to the Church made by the Sunday school are 
all out of proportion to the investment made 
by the Church in the Sunday school. 

75 per cent of all churches, 

95 per cent of all preachers, 

95 per cent of all church workers, 

85 per cent of all church members, 
have come up through and are products of the 
Sunday school. These are marvelous results 
when we remember that: pastors give it not over 
ten per cent of their time; parents give it not 
over ten per cent of their time; theological sem- 
inaries give it not over one per cent of their 
time; religious papers give it not over one per 
cent of their space and the Church gives it not 
over one per cent of its money. In other words, 
for about five per cent of its investment of time 
and money, the Church gets about ninety per 
cent of its highest and best results from the 
Sunday school. 

The answers received from the boys reveal 
how personality proves to be the great staying 



240 BOYOLOGY 

force. Whenever a man of character and virility 
is selected as a teacher of boys between twelve 
and nineteen, eighty per cent of the difficulties 
in holding boys to the Sunday school are re- 
moved. Never has the call for strong, forceful. 
Christian men of education to invest their per- 
sonality in teaching a class of boys in the Sunday 
school, been sounded so loudly as today. Boys 
have demonstrated their willingness to follow 
this kind of leadership. Religious education is 
now left completely to the Church and the home. 
The awakening to the responsibility of this 
great task is seen throughout the various branches 
of the Church. The unpreparedness to measure 
up to her opportunity is causing Institutes for 
Teacher Training to spring up almost as rapidly 
as the proverbial mushrooms and with about 
as much stability. There is great danger of 
producing "half baked*' teachers who have a 
book knowledge or Correspondence Course cer- 
tificate, but who are void of heart and a genuine 
desire to win the boy to the Master, and lacking 
most in that fine quality of life called balance. 
"Of all subject matters," says Prof. Home, "re- 
ligion is both the most important and the worst 
taught: most important because it brings men 
into relations with the most real Being; worst 
taught, perhaps both because least understood 
and requiring most from the teacher. The 



STEMMING THE TIDE 241 

opportunity confronting the Sunday school is 
unique among educational institutions." 

If the answer of the boy "Personality of and 
attachment for teacher'* which was given as the 
reason for remaining in the Sunday school was 
analyzed, the summing up would be, "His in- 
terest in me." "Where the teacher's life is 
guided by the idealism of a true Christian faith," 
says Franklin McElfresh, "where Christ himself 
is the object of the heart's deepest loyalty, this 
inner life will be felt and appreciated by the 
boys, though they will seldom express it. These 
are the days when life comes to climaxes, when 
the will makes its great decisions. ... If the 
teacher fails to win the boy to Christ, to the 
Church, to the clean life, and to a noble purpose, 
he has lost the days of richest opportunity; for 
never again will the boy be so free from prejudice 
or influence from without."^ 

Without this interest, teaching will be non- 
productive. "To call forth the native powers 
of the soul into the world of action" is the pur- 
pose of education. 

"We teach and teach. 
Until like drumming pedagogues, we lose 
The thought that what we teach has higher ends 
Than being taught and learned." 

If what is taught is the Gospel, then will the 



2 McElfresh, "The Training of S. S. Teachers," p. 143. 



242 BOYOLOGY 

soul respond, for the words of Jesus are spirit 
and are life. Lifeless teaching cannot produce 
action and desire for service. 

"Got the habit" was another answer by the 
boys. Someone has said that habit is very hard 
to get rid of, for if you rub out the **h" you still 
have "abit," and if you rub out the "ab" you 
still have "it." 

"How did you form the Sunday-school-going 
habit.''" was asked a number of boys by the 
writer, and the following answers are typical of the 
large number of replies: 

"Parents taught me to go." 

"The habit was formed when a Sunday School 
Indoor Baseball League was started by the 
Y. M. C. A.; a rule was that only one Sunday 
could be missed out of every three. I go now with- 
out missing one if I can help it." 

"A certain man asked me to come one Sunday, 
so I went, and I have been pretty steady ever 
since." 

"Kept going until I enjoyed it." 

The boy who has the Sunday-school-going habit 
should be encouraged to keep it healthy and 
vigorous and not be permitted to have "it" be- 
come weak and anemic through the non-attend- 
ance of a teacher or the lack of interesting les- 
sons. By some strange process of nature good 
habits die much younger than bad habits, and 
yet some good habits live to a good old age. 



STEMMING THE TIDE 243 

It was the habit of the Master to go regularly 
to the Synagogue. 

First impressions are always lasting impres- 
sions. A cordial greeting has proven to be the 
best kind of a holding attraction. To be re- 
ceived by a human icicle results in a "freeze 
out." A hearty, warm handgrasp, coupled with 
a straight look in the eye of the stranger, has 
won many to the Sunday school and Church. 
The reason why a boy went to a Sunday school 
several miles from his home in preference to the 
one located on the block near his house was, he 
said, "Because they Uke a fellow down there." 
Beware of the man who greets strangers with 
the "clammy" handshake, and a bromidic phrase. 
He can do much harm. Put the cheerful man 
in front, the man who, as Addison says, has 
"a cheerful temper, which, joined with innocence, 
will make beauty attractive, knowledge delight- 
ful, and wit good natured." The Sunday school 
should be a cheerful place. "Cheerfulness is an 
excellent wearing quality; it has been called the 
bright weather of the heart." "Be of good 
cheer" was a favorite expression of Jesus Christ, 
and worthy of emulation by His ambassadors. 

"Was given something to do" has been the 
salvation of thousands. What are some of the 
things Sunday school classes are doing? A 
popular way to describe class activities is known 



244 BOYOLOGY 

as the fourfold type of activities: physical, such 
as athletics, games, camping, lectures on hygiene, 
etc.; social, such as home and church socials, 
entertainments, game tournaments, exhibitions, 
musicals, etc.; mental, such as practical talks, 
life-work talks, educational trips, citizenship, etc.; 
spiritual, such as organized Bible classes, church 
membership, cooperation in church activities, 
winning others, etc., etc."^ 

Service was the great appeal of Jesus Christ. 
It was His definition of greatness. "He that 
would be greatest among you, let him be servant 
of all." The kind of service which challenges, 
especially older boys, is that which demands 
sacrifice. "Self-seeking brings chaos." "Jealousy 
is nitrogen," and "Service saves from self," 
are sentences which should be reiterated until 
they become dynamic in the lives of men and 
boys. Inter-church organizations promote fellow- 
ship and strengthen the Brotherhood idea. "No 
man liveth imto himself"; neither should a 
church be self -centered. Community competi- 
tion should be changed into community coopera- 
tion. This does not always mean federation, 
but it does mean unity and harmony in work 
that promotes righteousness and community 
betterment. 



« Alexander, "The Boy and the Sunday School" — list of activities, 
pp. 107-109. 



STEMMING THE TmE 245 

This can best be done through the organized 
class. Boys are enthusiastic "joiners." Numer- 
ous buttons displayed on coat lapels or on vests 
are the sign of belonging to something. It is 
easier to organize boys than to organize any 
other kind of business. Micawber-Hke, they are 
waiting for some new organization to turn up. 
The boy is the patron saint of many industries 
which are kept busy turning out celluloid buttons, 
watch fobs, fraternity pins, society stationery, 
scout suits, camping outfits, and the hundred 
and one things needed in equipping his many 
organizations. 

Some time ago I made a study of the various 
organizations of boys and discovered forty-four 
to be in existence. Many of them have three 
degrees, each of them having insignia and ritual. 
Some were educational, some altruistic, some 
semi-reHgious, and a large proportion religious. 
The "get-together" instinct demands expression 
and the Sunday school which wisely and tact- 
fully encourages organized classes and week-day 
societies will find them to be a great ally in 
holding boys. Every organization should lead 
to the building up of Christian character, for 
after awhile, the uniform regalia and scout cos- 
tume loses its attraction, and the little button 
on the coat lapel or watch fob is the extent of 
his outward identification of membership. His 



246 BOYOLOGY 

work now should mean more to him than his 
uniform. If he is tied up to an organized Bible 
class, he has something permanent and which 
he cannot outgrow. At fifteen scouting and 
knighthood cease to interest him, and at eighteen 
or twenty he is usually through with fraternities 
and orders, or else he is in college, where the 
fraternity means something of a different nature. 
He outgrows this type of organization as he out- 
grows a suit of clothes. Graduation from these 
orders very often means graduation from the 
Sunday school and Church. All kinds of activ- 
ities may be injected into an organized Bible 
class, and the class organization kept flexible 
enough for an adjustment to every stage of boy 
development and all its physical, social, mental, 
and spiritual needs. 

Many Sunday schools are finding that the 
organization of a Boys* Department is another 
method of holding boys. The idea originated 
some years ago in Holyoke, Mass., and is known 
as the Holyoke plan. It is the grouping to- 
gether of organized classes for the sake of imity 
and team work among the adolescent boys. The 
classes are composed of boys between twelve and 
eighteen years of age, and meet as a separate 
department of the school, having its own superin- 
tendent, its own opening and closing services 
and those activities in which boys would naturally 



STEMMING THE TIDE 247 

be interested. In some Sunday schools the 
department meets once a month with the com- 
bined departments and participates in the pro- 
gram. Wherever this plan has been tried it has 
increased the attendance of boys and created a 
genuine interest and enthusiasm for the entire 
church Hfe. The Boys' Department is not merely 
a system of sex segregation, although a good 
many educators are urging the segregation of 
the sexes in public education; it is a clear under- 
standing of the gang principle which clamors 
for club or organization. The neglect of the 
Sunday school to recognize the organizing or 
"joining" instinct was the reason why so many 
boys' organizations sprang into existence outside 
the Church. 

The adolescent period of life cannot be treated 
as a unit, for 

"As each new life is given to the world. 
The senses — like a door that swings two ways — 
Stand ever twixt its inner waiting self 
And that environment with which its lot 
Awhile is cast. 

A door that swings two ways: 



Inward at first it turns, while nature speaks. 
Then outward, to set free an answering thought." 

"Childhood learns the world and conforms to 
it. With adolescence comes the consciousness 



248 BOYOLOGY 

of a new self within the soul. The mysteries of 
his own personality now challenge him to search 
them out. He finds himself occupied with the 
problems of a free person. Toward persons he 
begins to act as a person, no longer imitatively, 
but freely, independently. Later he discovers 
that he is a member of society. The self-centered 
life is being transformed into the socialized life 
of the man and the claims of the social order 
are one by one enforced upon him. The long 
and passionate struggle of a youth's restless years 
is to get a correct adjustment of personal and 
social relations with the persons who make up 
the human world about him and the Supreme 
Person above. On correct adjustment here, the 
blessedness or the perdition of life depends; the 
burden of responsibility cannot be shifted; each 
must make his own adjustment, with fatal re- 
sults, for weal or woe; and that is why," says 
McKinley, "the hopes of youth are such bound- 
ing hopes, the sorrows of youth such poignant 
sorrows."* It is here that the graded lessons 
prove so helpful, and so effective in stemming 
the tide of outgoing boys from the Sunday 
school. What was good for them two years ago, 
is now full of barren platitudes, mere goody- 
goodiness, because their souls are ready for a 
deep)er, and a more personal religion. Such 

* McKinley, "Educational Evangelism," Chap. VII. 



STEMMING THE TIDE 249 

courses as "The World: A Field for Christian 
Service," "The Problems of Youth in Social 
Life," "The Books of Ruth and James," a series 
prepared by Sidney A. Weston, Ph.D., of the 
Pilgrim Press, and "Athletes of the Bible," by 
Brink and Smith (Association Press), and other 
similar courses, have in them the service appeal, 
and afford opportunity for discussion. 

"There are four chief instruments of education," 
says McKinley — "impression, instruction, asso- 
ciation, and self-expression. These answer in a 
general way to the four principal forms of re- 
ligious exercise, worship, disclpleship, fellowship, 
and service: and from the use to be made of 
these instruments to promote the religious ad- 
justments of the soul to God, the primary prin- 
ciples governing the agencies and methods of 
religious work for youth may be deduced."^ 

When the Sunday school becomes the Bible 
school, with its carefully planned and graded 
departments, with its services of worship, then 
a new respect will be shown by the older boys 
and a loyalty, not even dreamed of, will be 
evidenced. 



• McKinley, "Educational Evangelism," p. 227. 



CHAPTER XIII 

The Church, the Preacher, the Sermon, 
THE Boy 

A PARABLE 

"Two men went up into the Temple of God. One 
went to listen to the music critically, as he would listen 
at a concert, and to see if the preacher would be able to 
say some new thing that day. The other went to wor- 
ship God, and the music seemed to him fitted to help 
the soul rise as on eagle's wings; and the simple word of 
the preacher seemed to him the word of God coming 
from the Father through a brother's heart. And all the 
week God seemed nearer to him because of that hour 
in the Father's House." — From a Church Calendar. 

"Morbus Sabbaticus, or Sunday sickness," de- 
scribed by an unknown author, "is a disease 
peculiar to the male portion of the conununity. 
The symptoms vary, but it never interferes with 
the appetite. It never lasts more than twenty- 
four hours. No physician is ever called. It 
always proves fatal in the end — to the soul. 
It is becoming fearfully prevalent, and is destroy- 
ing thousands every year. 

"The attack comes on suddenly every Sunday; 
no symptoms are felt on Saturday night; the 
patient sleeps well and wakes feeling well; eats 
250 



THE CHURCH AND THE BOY 251 

a hearty breakfast, but about church time the 
attack comes on and continues until services 
are over for the morning. Then the patient feels 
easy and eats a hearty dinner. In the afternoon 
he feels much better and is able to take a walk 
or a motor ride, and read the Sunday papers; 
he eats a substantial supper, but about church 
time he has another attack and stays at home. 
He wakes up Monday morning refreshed and able 
to go to work, and does not have any symptoms 
of the disease until the following Sunday.'* 

The spread of this peculiar disease — "Morbus 
Sabbaticus'* — has been so prevalent that the 
Church has become alarmed and has instituted 
a campaign to stamp it out, known as the "Go- 
to-Church" Sunday; also stereopticon pictures, 
moving pictures, religious dramas, augmented 
music, and other devices of drawing power, have 
been used with varying effect, the patient rally- 
ing for a time only to relapse into a state of 
innocuous lassitude. Easter and Christmas are 
hypodermic injections, stimulating church at- 
tendance for the day only. There comes a time 
in the treatment of chronic cases when heroic 
measures must be resorted to if the life of the 
patient is to be saved. A thorough diagnosis is 
made of the patient and the disease. After 
consultation between the attending physicians a 
decision is reached. This decision may mean to 



252 BOYOLOGY 

operate or to send the patient away for a change 
of environment, or the use of auto-suggestion to 
release the patient from the power of hallucination. 

This analogy between physician and patient 
may not be absolutely the same as between 
Church and people, yet there is a similarity, 
for today there exist too many churchless boys 
and boy less churches. There was a time when 
parents not only attended church but took the 
children with them, when the family pew was 
occupied by the family, when the Sabbath was 
looked forward to as a day of worship and rest, 
when the preparation for the Sabbath began 
on Saturday by the doing of many things on 
that day which would free the Sabbath from 
even household cares, in order that the spirit 
of rest might envelop the home. 

According to the figures of H. K. Carroll, the 
seating capacity of the Protestant Churches in 
the United States in 1910 was 40,082,237, while 
the total communicant membership was 14,229,- 
940. This leaves room for 25,852,297 additional 
men, women, and children who may care to 
attend worship on Sunday without disturbing 
the communicants."^ The average increase since 
1913, for all religious bodies, great and small. 
Christian and non-Christian, is 2 per cent.^ 



1 Carroll, "The Religious Forces of the United States," p. 393. 
* "Churchmen Afield," Boston Transcript, February 13, 1914. 



THE CHURCH AND THE BOY 253 

In order to find out why the older boys don't 
go to church, 243 older boys were questioned. 
These boys were Sunday school attendants in 
some 70 cities and towns. The replies and the 
number giving them were as follows: 

49 "Services not interesting." 

26 "There is nothmg to do." 

24 "Not interested." 

23 "Don't understand the sermons." 

13 "Appeal of other influences." 

12 "Companions don't go." 

12 "Don't feel the need." 

9 "Sunday amusements." 

8 "Outside attractions." 

8 "Too big." 

7 "Don't get up early enough." 

7 "Not welcomed." 

6 "Not encouraged to go." 

6 "Parents don't go with them." 

4 "Other boys laugh at them." 

3 "Not invited." 

3 "Too tired." 

3 "Only for women." 

2 "Sunday school enough." 

2 "Services too dry." 

2 "Preacher not friendly." 

2 "Because parents urge." 

2 "Ignorance of the service." 

2 "Too lazy." 

2 "Stay home and read." 

2 "Rather be out of doors." 

1 "Unable to sit still." 

1 "For old people." 



254 BOYOLOGY 

1 "So few men attend." 
1 "Feel out of place." 
1 "Not started right." 

The instinct of worship is inborn in every 
human heart. Everybody worships something, 
a dog, a black pipe, a stone god — something. 
Christians worship the triune God — the Father, 
the Son, and the Holy Spirit. To keep worship 
alive and make it a vital factor in the everyday 
life of the individual is the supreme function of 
the Church. "Instincts and desires and tenden- 
cies, it is found, do not educate without the 
appropriate materials for their satisfaction. Nor 
is it enough that there should be materials with- 
out instincts." Reverence is one of the regulative 
instincts. Worship is the reverence and homage 
which is, or ought to be, paid to God and should 
include adoration, sacrifice, praise, prayer, thanks- 
giving, song, and silence. Worship should mean 
something more than mere forms and ceremonies. 
"Let us Pray" too frequently means "Let him 
Pray," to congregations who sit with eyes wide 
open, head erect, and in a non-participating atti- 
tude. Many times the collection plate is given 
the vacant look instead of a cheerful gift. These 
are acts of worship now in great danger of atrophy. 

Personally, I am a firm believer in the family 
pew system. With the going out of the family 
pew, also went the family. Free pews do not 



THE CHURCH AND THE BOY 255 

seem to attract great audiences of staying quality. 
Boys and girls worshiping with their parents at 
the morning service on Sunday are a rare sight 
today, except in churches which have come to 
beUeve that the service should be made to appeal 
to the children as well as adults. In the Central 
Congregational Church of Worcester they have a 
Go-to-Church band. While it originally was 
started for children, it has broadened out. The 
band is divided into two classes, i. e., thirteen 
years old and younger, and fourteen years old 
and older. It is not considered anything un- 
usual to have at a morning service a hundred 
children. In England they have what is called 
a League of Worshiping Children which has 
revolutionized church attendance. 

In reply to the question, "What is your Best 
Habit; how did you form it?" Eighty-six replied 
"Going to Church." The answers they gave to 
the second part of the question are interesting. 

"By going to the boys' club and meeting boys 
who went to church, and who I was very intimate 
with and went around with, therefore, I started 
going to church and attend fairly regular." 

"My parents took me to church and Sunday 
school as long as I can remember. I am now 
sufficiently interested in church to attend of my 
own wish." 

"By attending Sunday school and Young 
People's meetings." 



256 BOYOLOGY 

**Most of my friends went and they induced 
me to go. I went, liked it, and have joined." 

"By beginning when I was young. Many 
Sundays I ahnost hated to go, but my parents 
made me go when younger; now I enjoy it and 
can hardly wait for Sunday. I also teach a class 
of five boys of 12 years average age in the Sunday 
school." 

*'My father was janitor and I always went 
with him." 

"Through being a member of the choir." 

"By continued going and because of the 
minister." 

"By the *Go to Church Band.' " 

"My father is a minister." 

"I made up my mind to go." 

"When I joined the church two years ago, 
the minister said in taking us into the fellowship 
of the church that it was our solemn duty to be 
present at as many meetings as possible, so from 
that have fallen into the habit of going to church 
every Sunday." 

"From my early childhood I was taught to 
go to church but was not forced. I used to 
hate to go, but as I grew older I enjoyed it more, 
therefore I get more out of it." 

"By joining it and becoming active in its work." 

"At the death of my mother I went to no 
church. Shortly after that I was asked by a 
boy to go to Sunday school with him. I did and 
continued to go steady now for about six years." 

"I started one Sunday when the Boy Scouts 
had exercises and then about one year after that 
I joined the church." 

"Well, I just like it." 



THE CHURCH AND THE BOY 257 

"My experience in forming this habit was 
strange enough. I got so grouchy about home 
that my mother and father sent me to church 
every Sunday, to get rid of my grouchiness. 
So this way I got the habit formed, so now I 
like to go." 

"By attending Older Boys' Conference." 

"Will power." 

"Through my Sunday school teacher." 

"Through the Knights of King Arthur." 

The attendance of boys and girls at the morn- 
ing service may mean the rearrangement of the 
family plans for Sunday morning. One pastor 
found it necessary to publish in the church 
calendar the following: 

BEATITUDES FOR CHURCHGOERS 

"Blessed are those who rise early Sunday morning, 
for they get to church on time." 

"Blessed are those who get to church on time, for they 
arrive in the spirit of worship.'* 

"Blessed are those who are never late, for they cause 
the minister and choir to love them." 
■ ''Blessed are those who must be late, who do not enter 
during the Scripture lesson or prayer." 

"Blessed are those who come even at the eleventh hour, 
but church begins at quarter before eleven." 

It is unnecessary to add that the number desir- 
ing to be classified with the first "blesseds" be- 
came increasingly large. 
In answer to the question, "What is keeping 



258 BOYOLOGY 

you from joining the Church?" a few of the 
many replies given by boys are as follows: 

"Not old enough." 
"Not ready to join." 
"Bashfuhiess." 
"Too much responsibility." 
"Nothing." 

"Because the other boys have not." 
"I want to see if I can live up to it first." 
"I am too young." (He was sixteen years old.) 
"My parents think I am too small to under- 
stand what I am doing." 
"No reason." 

"Haven't had time to consider." 
"I do not think I am good enough." 
"My parents prefer that I should wait." 
"Some of the pleasures of the world which I 
am undecided about giving up." 

"I am not sufficiently instructed in things as 
I should be." 

"Good enough outside the Church." 
"Because I cany Sunday morning papers." 
**The pastor at the church my parents attend 
has been there forty years, and is a little bit 
stale. I would join another one but I know they 
would like to have me join that one, so I am 
waiting to see if he won*t resign or do something 
else." 

In the chapter on the religious characteristics 
of boyhood we dealt very thoroughly with the 
"why" a boy should join the Church, making 
it unnecessary to enlarge upon the subject in 



THE CHURCH AND THE BOY 259 

this chapter, except to add that "to make a 
Sunday school boy instead of a church boy is 
a net loss." The Church must provide in its 
services of worship a place for the boy and it 
is here where the minister has an important task 
to perform. In the struggle for the body and 
soul of a boy there is no aid that is comparable 
with religion. "Thousands of honest, serious- 
minded men frankly confess that in modern 
conditions they see little hope of this battle 
being won without religion as a sanction of 
right conduct. The boy needs God, a God to 
whom he can pray in the hour of temptation. 
He needs to regard his life with all its powers 
as God's investment, which he must not squander 
or pervert,*' says Prof. Hoben. 

To reach a boy, the minister must not depend 
alone upon the formal work of the pulpit. He 
must understand boys. Not every minister real- 
izes the value of a boy. Well-governed cities, 
efficient schools, happy homes, vitalized churches 
of the future, depend upon the boys of today. 
The boy is the key to the future and the chief 
problem before the minister is the winning of 
the next generation for Christ and his Church. 
"Boys' work then," says Prof. Hoben, "is not 
providing harmless amusement for a few trouble- 
some youngsters; it is the natural way of cap- 
turing the modern world for Jesus Christ. It 



260 BOYOLOGY 

lays hold of life in the making, it creates the 
masters of tomorrow; and may preempt for the 
Kingdom of God the varied activities and star- 
tling conquests of our titanic age."^ 

Again, going to the "source of wisdom" — the 
boy — for an answer to the question of "how a 
minister can help a boy," the following replies 
were given: 

"Have confidence in him." 

"By doing what is right." 

"By sticking to him and tell him when he does 
a wrong thing." 

"To pray for him." 

"By writing him helpful letters." 

"Encouraging him to do right." 

"Teaching him the difference between right and 
wrong." 

"Being kind to him." 

"By being a boyish man with the boys and 
making the boys manly boys." 

**Taking interest in the things that the boys 
are interested in." 

"By example and advice." 

"By keeping him away from bad companions." 

"When a boy is in trouble tell him what to do." 

"By teaching the Bible to him." 

"Be a true Christian friend to him." 

"By not doing anything in front of a boy that 
the boy ought not to do." 

"Don*t holler at him when he does wrong, but 
speak kindly." 



» Hoben, "The Minister and the Boy," p. 5. 



THE CHURCH AND THE BOY 261 

"By gaining his confidence." 
"By answering a boy*s questions." 
"By realizing that he was a boy once and 
sympathizing with him." 

How quickly the boy analyzes the make-up 
of a grown man. He has no time for shams, 
make-believes, and mask-wearers. "To be 'rev- 
erend' means such character and deeds as compel 
reverence and not the mere *laying on of hands.* 
Work with boys discovers this basis, for there 
is no place for the holy tone in such work, nor for 
the strained and vapid quotation of Scripture, 
no place for excessively feminine virtues, nor for 
the professional handshake and the habitual 
inquiry after the family's health. In a very 
real sense many a minister can be saved by the 
boys; he can be saved from that insidious class- 
ification of adult society into *men, women and 
ministers,' which is credited to the sharp insight 
of George Eliot."' 

The minister who schools himself in the art 
of leading others into paths of service is the 
minister who will not only fill the pews of his 
church but save souls from a sordid selfishness. 
On a church calendar appeared the names of 
four "Minister's assistants." This was so un- 
usual, especially as the church was located in 
a small town of less than five thousand inhab- 

* Hoben, "The Minister and tlie Boy," p. 9. 



262 BOYOLOGY 

itants, that inquiry was made of the pastor 
at the close of the service; and it was found that 
these assistants were four boys who stood ready 
to do whatever the minister required. Their 
names on the church calendar helped to impress 
upon them their responsibility and the boys 
considered it a great honor to be selected for 
such a position of service. On the last page of 
the calendar was printed this paragraph: 

THE WORK OF THE CHURCH 
There is a place and work for everyone in the many 
departments of our church activity. Each one is there- 
fore earnestly invited to share in the responsibility as 
well as in the joy and privilege of this work. 

In another church the minister used the Sun- 
day school class organizations by making them 
responsible for the Wednesday evening services. 
One night the Baraca class led the meeting; 
another the Philatliea class conducted it; another 
night the older boys' class discussed Cabot's 
book "What Men Live By— Work, Play, Love, 
Worship"; another night the Dorcas class as- 
sumed the responsibility for the service; and on 
another occasion the Choir was in charge and 
discussed the Ministry of Music. This minister 
had learned the art of using others in conducting 
services, as well as in rendering service. 

"What do You Like Best About Your Minister 



THE CHURCH AND THE BOY 263 

and His Sermons?" was a question put to a 
large group of boys. A few of the replies are 
here given: 

"Ability to tell stories and to illustrate truth." 
"Interesting sermons." 
"Unique presentation." 
"Special sermons to older boys." 
"Minister who was a man, human being, not 
too holy — holier than thou attitude." 

"Short sermons — not over forty minutes." 
"Power as speaker. Oratorical." 

In answer to the question as to what kind of 
sermons they would preach to boys if they were 
ministers, these replies were received: 

**The Church and Its History." 

'*The Church and Its Principles." 

"Boys and the Church." 

"Bible as History." 

"The Boy and His Opportunity." 

**Temptations of Boyhood." 

"Benefits of Church attendance." 

"Why join the Church." 

"Bible characters applied to older boyhood." 

"What boys can do for the Church." 

"Lives of Great Men." 

"Bible Cities." 

To sum it up in the words of Charles E. Mc- 
Kinley: "We must deal with youth in vital, not 
formal, ways. They are to be regarded, not as 
factors in the parish organization, but as actors 



264 BOYOLOGY 

in its life. The very first thing required is that 
the Church itself shall take cognizance of its, 
youth; as a worshiping body, it must be aware 
of them, sensitive to their presence, responsive 
to their needs. Youth should be in our congre- 
gations as in our homes; their place is not the 
nursery, but the family hving-room. There is 
no call to order either the church or the home 
life entirely to suit them, for they are only a 
part of the family, but it is a righteous demand 
that they shall not be ignored." 

"It would be natural to say, in the next place, 
that the church services should be adapted to 
youth; but this has been already done. No 
violent reconstruction of our methods of worship, 
no radical change in the style of preaching, is 
required by the interests of youth; all that is 
necessary is to be true to the ideals now cher- 
ished. The nearer we come to the ideal church 
service, the nearer we come to what youth wants. 
Dull sermons, tedious prayers, ^ballooning' by 
the choir, are no more profitable for age than 
for youth. But the perennial freshness of the 
gospel imparts a youthful spirit to the very na- 
ture of Christian worship. We all go to church 
to have renewed in us the hopefulness and con- 
fidence, the courage and assurance, the fresh 
enthusiasm and glad anticipations, that are 
youth's own property. Surely if this atmosphere 



THE CHURCH AND THE BOY 265 

is in the service, youth will feel at home there. 
And when it comes to the teaching, the doctrine, 
the sermon, there is hardly a greater homiletic 
mistake than to suppose that the best thought 
of a mature mind presented in the most effective 
way to reach earnest men is not the proper food 
for the youth. Children's sermons may be very 
well for children now and then, but they are 
an abomination to boys in long trousers; what 
they need is the preacher's best thought, put in 
his most business-like way. If a sermon is pre- 
pared for those who are fond of some special 
type of thought or method of discourse, it is 
hkely to miss the youth; but not if it is a vital 
utterance of substantial truth addressed to serious 
men and women. That is all youth asks, for 
it is what youth loves. "^ 

* McKinley, "Educational Evangelism," p. 193. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 
AND INDEX 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Here is a Six Foot Shelf of 103 books and 
pamphlets written about boys or subjects analo- 
gous to boy life. There are scores of other 
books printed upon the subject equally good, 
but the author found these to be especially 
helpful and can therefore commend them to 
students of "Boyology" and parents. 

Books op a General Character for Parents 

Kirtley, James S. "That Boy of Yours." New York: 
George H. Doran Co., 1912. 
A series of sympathetic studies of boyhood. 

Beck, Frank Orman. "Marching Manward." New 
York: Eaton & Mains, 1913. 
A plea for the boy, not simply a chronicle of his doings. 

Forbush, William Byron. "The Boy Problem in the 
Home." Boston: The Pilgrim Press, 1915. 

<h ' Dealing solely with home government, sex discipline, and re- 
Ugious nature. 

Forbush, William Byron. "Guide Book to Childhood." 
Philadelphia: George W. Jacobs & Co., 1916. 
An encyclopedia of 557 pages on child training. 

Clark, Kate Upson. "Bringing up Boys." New York: 
Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1899. 
A book of old fashioned, therefore, good common sense. 

Abbott, Ernest Hamlin. "On the Training of Parents." 
Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1908. 

Good sound advice to parents, written in a witty way, yet 
filled with sound reasoning. 

269 



270 BOYOLOGY 

Burbank, Luther. "The Training of the Human Plant." 
New York: The Century Co., 1912. 

An interesting study of similarity between the organization 
and development of plant and human life. 

Herrick, Christine Terhune. "My Boy and I." Boston: 
Dana Estes & Co., 1913. 

A chronicle of incidents occurring in the home life of nor- 
mal boys. 

Moon, E. L. "The Contents of the Boy." New York: 
Eaton & Mains, 1909. 
Full of helpful suggestions of a practical character. 

Dickinson, George A., M.D. "Your Boy, His Nature and 
Nurture." New York: Hodder & Stoughton. 

A plea for a better understanding of the real, healthy, nor- 
mal boy. 

Wood, Mary Buell. "Just Boys." New York: Fleming 
H. Revell Co., 1909. 

West, Paul. "Just Boy." New York: George H. Doran 
Co., 1912. 

Tarkington, Booth. "Penrod." New York: Doubleday, 
Page & Co., 1914. 

Tarkington, Booth. "Seventeen." New York: Harper 
& Company, 1916. 
Four books to take up and read when you are tired and dis- 
couraged, e8i)ecially if you are the parent of a real, lively, imag- 
inative boy between thirteen and seventeen years of age. 

Mothers in particular should become members of "The 
American Institute of Child Life." William Byron For- 
bush. President, 1764 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 
The books and pamphlets printed and issued by the 
Institute are valuable in helping parents solve the many 
daily problems of the home life. 

Advanced Study 

Hall, G. Stanley. "Adolescence." Two vols. New York: 
D. Appleton & Company, 1905. 

An exhaustive study of Adolescence, its psychology and ita 
relation to physiology, anthropology, sociology, sex, crime, 
religion, and education. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 271 

Hall, G. Stanley. "Youth: Its Education, Regimen and 
-^-i Hygiene." New York: D. Appleton & Company, 

1906. 
An epitomized edition of "Adolescence." 

Tyler, John Mason. "Growth and Education." Boston: 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1907. 
Gives an account of the growth of all the systems in the nor- 
mal or average child and its relation to educational problems. 

Kirkpatrick, Edwin A. "Fundamentals of Child Study." 
New York: The Macmillan Co., 1915. 
A discussion of the instincts and other factors in human de- 
velopment with practical application. 

Hubbell, George Allen. "Up Through Childhood." New 
York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1904. 
A study of some principles of education in relation to Faith 
and Conduct. (Out of priat; may be seen in Ubraries.) 

Swift, Edgar James. "Youth and the Race." New York: 
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1912. 
Attempts to show how the schools ma3j help to transform into 
intellectual and moral forces the racial instincts which, as man- 
ifesting original sin, distressed our forefathers. 

Swift, Edgar James. "Mind in the Making." New 
York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. 

A study in mental development and a plea for the personal 
element in education. 

Forbush, William Byron. "The Coming Generation." 
New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1912. 

Deals with the betterment of boys and girls in their homes 
by means of a fair start through education, through preventative 
measures, through religious and social nurture. 

James, William. "Talks to Teachers." New York: Henry 
Holt & Co., 1906. 
Chapters on psychology and some of life's ideals. 

Thorndike, Edward Lee. "Notes on Child Study." New 
York: The Macmillan Co., 1903. 
Especially prepared for teachers and originally used in the 
author's classes at Columbia University. 

Warner, Francis. "The Study of Children." New York: 
The Macmillan Co., 1.902. 
A study of brain-power and m(»ntal expression. It is a descrip- 
tion of the author's personal observation covering a period 
of twenty years. 



272 BOYOLOGY 

King, Irving. "The Psychology of Child Development." 
Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1911. 

Psychology from a genetic-functional standpoint is expounded 
and illustrated. The author attempts to give a solution of the 
controversy about the relationship of child and adult psychology. 

Barnes, Earl. "The Psychology of Childhood and Youth." 
New York: B. W. Huebsch, 1914. 
The outlines of thirty lectures given by Mr. Barnes, and con- 
taining the results of the more recent individual and group 
studies on the physical, mental, moral, social, sesthetic, and 
religious life of Childhood and Youth. 

Fiske, George Walter. "Boy Life and Self Government." 
New York: Association Press, 1910. 

A sympathetic interpretation of boy life and a plea for self- 
expression and self-government among older boys. 

Burr, Hanford M. "Studies in Adolescent Boyhood." 
Springfield: Seminar Publishing Co., 1907. 

The conclusions of physiologists and psychologists applied to 
practical education and philanthropy. 

Taylor. A. R. "The. Study of the Child." New York: 
D. Appleton & Co., 1910. 
A brief treatise on the psychology of the child, written in plain 
language and remarkably free from technical terms and scien- 
tific formulae. 

McKeever, William A. "Outlines of Child Study." 
New York: The Macmillan Co., 1915. 
Contains 112 programs and the plan of organization and man- 
agement of Child Study Clubs. 

Patrick, G. T. W. "Psychology of Relaxation." Boston: 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1916. 

A book showing how the higher nerve centers find relief from 
the unaccustomed demands of civilization. Contents: The 
Psychology of Play, of Laughter, of Profanity, of Alcohol, 
of War. 

Mark. H. Thiselton. "The Unfolding of Personality." 
Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1912. 

A study of some of the main bearings of psychology upon 
education in the light of the constantly developing life of the 
child. 

Sex Instruction 

A safe book of instruction upon sex matters which can 
be put in the hands of a boy for reading, has not yet been 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 273 

published. The books given in the following list are 
recommended to parents for their own information and 
digestion, so that they may become the instructors of their 
own boys by word of mouth rather than by the printed 
page. 

Chadwick, Dr, M. L. "Blossom Babies." New York: 
Eaton & Mains, 1913. 

A series of nature stories to tell little children, through which 
the great story of life may be taught. A book of beginnings. 

Howard, Dr. William Lee. "Start Your Child Right.** 
New York: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1910. 

Confidential talks to parents and teachers which point out 
clearly what should be taught children. 

Smart, Dr. I. Thompson. "What a Father Should Tell 
His Little Boy," "What a Father Should Tell 
His Son." New York: Funk & Wagnalls Co., 
1911. 

Two small books written in the form of letters to boys which 
it is questionable if boys would understand; yet the books 
are full of good suggestions, showing the way of approach to 
a boy. 

Chapman, Mrs. Woodallen. "How Shall I Tell My 
Child?" New York: Fleming H. Revcll Co., 1912. 

A mother's viewpoint, written in practical style and whole- 
some in tone. 

Bisseker, H. "When a Boy Becomes a Man." New 
York: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1913. 

Accurate and scientific information to give to boys who are 
in their teens. 

Willson, Dr. Robert N. "The Education of the Young 
in Sex Hygiene." Published by the author, 
1913. 1827 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

An exhaustive text book for parents and teachers. Written 
from a medical and moral standpoint. 

Hall, Dr. Winfield S. "From Youth into Manhood,'* 
"Reproduction and Sex Hygiene." New York: 
Association Press, 1909. 

Two well known and extensively endorsed books which every 
parent and teacher should possess. 

Pamphlets: "The Boy Problem," "The Young Man's 
Problem," "How my Uncle, the Doctor, In- 



274 BOYOLOGY 

stnicted Me in Matters of Sex." Published by 
the American Society of Sanitary and Moral 
Prophylaxis, N. Y. 

Three pamphlets of an educational nature and written in a 
clear and sane manner. 

Pamphlets: "John's Vacation" (for boys from 10 to 15), 
"Chums" (for boys from 16 to 18). Published 
by the American Medical Association, 536 Dear- 
born Street, Chicago. 

Written in story form by Dr. WinBeld S. Hall. Full of in- 
terest and scientific facts. 



Vocational Guidance 

Weaver, E. W. "Profitable Vocations for Boys." New 
York: Association Press, 1915. 

A book describing the various trades, professions, and occupa- 
tions, prepared with the idea of directing a boy's attention 
to the vocational facilities in bis community, and showing 
him how to utilize them. 

Babson. Roger W. "The Future of Us Boys." Boston: 
Babson's Statistical Organization, 1915. 
A most \inique description of a plan of introducing boys to 
the industries of their city and a method of analyzing the 
comparative value of each occupation. 

Fowler, Nathaniel C, Jr. "The Boy— How to Help 
Him to Succeed." Boston: Oakwood Pub. Co., 
1902. 

Symposium of successful experiences of many men. Written 
in common sense style and very practical. 

Parsons, Frank. "Choosing a Vocation." Boston: 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1909. 

Written by the originator of the "vocational guidance" idea 
for those who desire to be of real help to a perplexed boy. 

Snedden, David. "The Problem of Vocational Education." 
Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1910. 

A monograph showing the relation of the public school sys- 
tem to the problem of vocational education. 

Eliot. Charles W. "Education for Efficiency." Boston: 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1909. 
A definition of the cultivated man. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY «75 

Bloomfield, Meyer. "The Vocational Guidance of Youth." 
Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1909. 
A practical book for parents. 

Robinson, Clarence C. "The Wage Earning Boy." New 
York: Association Press, 1912. 
An interesting study of the boy who works and a plea for his 
betterment. 

Griggs, Edward Howard. "Self Culture Through the 
Vocation." New York: B. W. Huebsch, 1914. 

A little classic showing how life is something more than making 
a living. 

Sunday School and Church Work 

Schauffler, A. F. "God's Book and God's Boy." New 
York: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1915. 

Helpful teaching suggestions based upon common sense and 
practical expierience. 

Rishell, Charles W. "The Child as God's Child." New 
York: Eaton & Mains, 1904. 
A plea for the religious rights of the child. 

St. John, Edward Porter. "Child Nature and Child 
Nurture." Boston: Pilgrim Press, 1911. 

Particularly adapted as a text-book for the study of child life 
and the training of yoimg children. 

Layard, Ernest B. "Religion in Boyhood." New York: 
E. P. Dutton and Co., 1896. 

Hints for the religious training of boys. Especially helpful 
to parents. 

Starbuck, Edwin B. "The Psychology of Religion." 
New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1900. 

The author calls the book "an empirical study of the growth 
of religious consciousness." A book for the student of religion. 

McKinley, Charles E. "Educational Evangelism." Bos- 
ton: Pilgrim Press, 1905. 
A book which shoxild be read by every teacher of boys who 
are in the teen age. 

Burton and Mathews. "Principles and Ideals for the 
Sunday School." Boston: Pilgrim Press, 1907. 
Written with the idea of widening the horizon of Simday school 
teachers and introducing better methods of biblical study. 



276 BOYOLOGY 

Lectures: "Principles of Religious Education." New 
York: Longmans, Green & Co., 190L 
The Christian Knowledge course of lectures by many prom- 
inent clergymen and laymen upon religious education. 

Men and Religion Messages: "Boys' Work in the Sunday 
School." New York: Association Press, 1912. 

Prepared by a commission which incorporated the best ex- 
perience and practice in work among church boys in this volume. 

Alexander, John L. "The Boy and the Sunday School." 
New York: Association Press, 1913. 

A compendium of methods for work among older boys in the 
Simday school. 

Alexander, John L. "The Sunday School and the Teens.'* 
New York: Association Press, 1913. 

The rei>ort of the Commission on Adolescence authorized by 
the International Sunday School Association. Contains the 
latest findings as to how to deal with adolescents. 

McKinney, A. H. "Our Big Boys and the Sunday School." 
New York: Fleming H. Revell Co.. 1910. 
Particularly helpful to teachers. 

Weigle, Luther A. "The Pupil and the Teacher." New 
York: George H. Doran Co., 1911. 
A text-book for teacher training classes. 

Mark. H. Thiselton. "The Teacher and the Child.'* 
New York: Fleming H. Revell Co.. 1903. 
A rare and stimulating combination of theory and practice. 

McCormick, William. "Fishers of Boys." New York: 
Fleming H. Revell Co., 1915. 
Written by a newspaper man who has given years of service 
to boys' work. It is written in an informal and interesting 
manner. 

Richardson and Loomis. "The Boy Scout Movement 

Applied by the Church." Charles Scribner's 

Sons, 1915. 

A handbook for Scout Masters of Church boys' troops- A 

real contribution toward the solving of a deUcate church problem. 

Quin. Rev. George E. "The Boy-Saver's Guide." New 
York: Benziger Brothers. 1908. 
A book of methods used by a successful Catholic priest in his 
work among the boys of his parish. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 277 

Hoben, Allan. "The Minister and the Boy." Chicago: 
University of Chicago Press, 1912. 
A book of practical value to ministers who are really desirous 
of understanding and helping the boys of their parish. 

Foster, Eugene C. "The Boy and the Church." Phila- 
delphia: Sunday School Times Co., 1909. 

One of the best books upon this subject. 

Forbush, William Byron. "Church Work with Boys." 
Boston: Pilgrim Press, 1910. 
Designed as a text-book for classes of men who are preparing 
to be of service among boys. 

Hartshorne, Hugh. "Worship in the Sunday School." 
New York: Teachers College of Columbia Uni- 
versity, 1913. 

A comprehensive and thoughtful study of the theory and 

practice of worship. 

Hartshorne, Hugh. "The Book of Worship of the Sunday 
School." New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 
1915. 

Meant to be used by the Sunday school as a book of worship. 
Contains responses, prayers, hymns, etc. 

Hartshorne, Hugh. "Manual for Training in Worship." 
New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1915. 

For pastors, superintendents, organists, and those who are 
desirous of making the "opening exercises" of the Sunday 
school more devotional and inspiring. 

Gibson, H. W. "Services of Worship for Boys." New 
York: Association Press, 1914. 
A book of topically arranged services of hymns, prayers, and 



Hunting, Harold B. "The Story of the Bible." New 
York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1915. 
Fascinatingly written and sure to hold the attention of boys. 
Gives the story of how we got oxir English Bible. 

Plat and Games 

Johnson, George E. "Education by Play and Games." 
Boston: Ginn & Company, 1907. 

Discusses the meaning of play and gives a suggestive course 
of plays and games graded from infancy to the middle teens. 



278 BOYOLOGY 

Lee, Joseph. "Play in Education." New York: The 
Macmillan Co., 1915. 

A true picture of the child and youth in play, written by a sym- 
pathetic observer and champion of child liie. 

Hoffman, M. C. "Games for Everybody." New York: 
Dodge Pub. Co., 1905. 

Full of choice games for all occasions. 

Baker, G. Cornelius. "Indoor Games and Socials for 
Boys." New York: Association Press, 191S. 

Contains hundreds of roUicking good games and socials espe- 
cially adapted for boys. 

Heath, L. M. "Eighty Good Times Out of Doors." New 
York: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1902. 

Attractive and easy games for playing out of doors at all seasons 
of the year. (Out of print; may be seen in libraries.) 

Chesley, A. M. "Social Activities for Men and Boys." 
New York: Association Press, 1910. 

Two hundred and ninety-five interesting suggestions and 
•'stunts" for the relief of those who are searching for things 
to do. 

Gibson, H. W. "Camping for Boys." New York: Asso- 
ciation Press, 1911. 

Contains chapters on "Rainy Day Games," "Campus Qsmes," 
"Water Sports," etc. 

Cheley-Baker. "Camp and Outing Activities." New 
York: Association Press, 1915. 
The best book of its kind for camp leaders and Scout Masters 
who have active boys in search of fun and harmless sport. 

Miscellaneous 

Hyde, William DeWitt. "The Quest of the Best." New 
York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co.. 1913. 
An original and stimulating discussion upon boy ethics. 

Johnson, Franklin W. "The Problems of Boyhood." 
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1914. 
A course in ethics for boys of the High School age. * 

Pearson, Edmund L. "The Believing Years." New 
York: The Macmillan Co., 1911. 

A book of recollections of boyhood. Full oi humor and re- 
freshing in style. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 279 

White, William Allen. "The Court of Boyville." New 
York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1910. 
Hiunorous stories of happenings to boys in a country town. 

Travis, Thomas. "The Young Malefactor." New York: 
Thomas Y. Crowell Co.. 1908. 

The best study published in juvenile delinquency, its causes 
and treatment. 

Addams, Jane. "The Spirit of Youth and the City 
Streets." New York: The Macmillan Co., 1909. 

A plea for the social claims and needs of youth for wholesome 
recreation. 

Clopper, Edward N. "Child Labor in the City Streets." 
New York: The Macmillan Co., 1912. 

A discussion of a neglected form of child labor, its conditions, 

its causes, and its effects. 

Buck, Winifred. "Boys' Self Governing Clubs." New 
York: The Macmillan Co.. 1903. 

A very practical treatise upon the organization of clubs among 

boys of the streets. 

McCormick, William. "The Boy and His Clubs." New 
York: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1912. 
Written out of a rich experience with all kinds of boys' clubs. 
He tells the "why" and "how" in as few words as possible. 

Stelzle, Charles. "Boys of the Streets." New York: 
Fleming H. Revell Co., 1904. 

The author was niimber "8" in the famous St. Mark's Boys' 
Club of New York City, and is therefore qualified to champion 
the claims of this type of imperiled boy. 

Russell and Rigby. "Working Lads' Clubs." London: 
The Macmillan Co., 1908. 
A presentation of the management of English Lads' clubs. 

Merrill, Dr. Lilburn. "Winning the Boy." New York: 
Fleming H. Revell Co., 1908. 
A plea for misunderstood boys. 

Taylor, Charles K. "Character Development." Phila- 
delphia: John C. Winston Co., 1913. 
A practical graded school course correlating lessons in physical 
training, general morals, vocational guidance, etc. 



280 BOYOLOGY 

Taylor, Charles K. "The Physical Examination and 
Training of Children." Philadelphia: John C. 
Winston Co., 1914. 
A handbook for physical directors, teachers, parents, and 
medical inspectors, giving in minute detail the physical train- 
ing work outlined in "Character Development." 

The Personal Service Bureau conducted by the Mothers* 
Magazine, Elgin, 111., is a clearing house under the direc- 
tion of Prof. M. V. O'Chea, of the University of Wis- 
consin, for modern mothers. Programs and loan papers 
upon every phase of child study and child training have 
been prepared and will be furnished free to interested 
parents and Mothers' Clubs. "A Key to Child Training" 
is a valuable pamphlet issued by the Bureau. 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Ability 141 

Abstinence 21 

Acceleration of growth 5 

Achievement 39 

Action, a law of boy- 
hood 100 

Adolescence, Report of 

Committee on 27 

Adolescence and com- 
radeship 36 

Advice to smokers .... 24 
Affection, Instinct of . . 74 
Age of accountability. . 5 

Age of conversion 119 

Age of deepest religious 

conviction 119 

Aim of moral instruc- 
tion 103 

Alcohol 20,25 

Altruism 92, 97 

Altruistic feeling 78 

Amusements 11 

Amusements, Q u e s- 

tionnaire on 11 

Analysis of human 

body 16 

Analyzing a boy 170 

Ancestor worship 206 

Anger 70,71,73,104 

Animalism 103 

Appeal of conscience . . 106 

Appeal of religion 117 

Appendicitis 13 

281 



PAGE 

Aptitude 139 

Arbitration 70 

Art and adolescence. . . 196 

Arteries 7 

Assimilative power. ... 16 

Athletics, Dangers of.. 19 

Athletics, Goal of 20 

Attention 45 

Attitude of boys to- 
ward Church mem- 
bership 132 

Authority, Parental ... 39 

Authority, Respect for 39 
Aversion toward the 

strange 69 

Awakening conscience . 4 

Baraca classes 262 

Bathing 10 

Beatitudes for church 

goers 257 

Beautiful, Apprecia- 
tion of 1 

Beer drinking 21 

Beer drinking among 

students 23 

Betting and gambling . 113 
Bible study, Y. M. C. 

A 233 

Big boys and the Sun- 
day school 226 

Blood pressure. . .8, 71, 173 

Boarding houses 90 



282 



INDEX 



PAGB 

Body, Anatomy of. . . . 172 
" Constituent ele- 
ments of 171 

" Muscular energy 

of 171 

" the servant of 

the mind .... 29 
Books, Questionnaire 

on 47,52 

Books on vocational 

subjects 146 

Books, Sex instruction 

through 198 

Bones 172 

Bowels 13 

Boyhood of Jesus 6 

Boyless churches and 

churchless boys 252 

Boys and literature ; . . 37 
Boys and vocational 

decision 38 

Boys* Department in 

the Sunday school . . 246 
Boy's philosophy of life 15 
Boy's room in the home 87 
Boy Scout on Wall 

Street 37 

Boy's trousers pockets 141 

Brain impressions 195 

Brain, Racking of 14 

Brain, Weight of 30 

Breathing, Deep IS, 27 

" during sleep 15 

" through the 

mouth. ... 14 
through the 

nose 10 

" through the 

pores 10 

Business ethics of boy- 
hood 141 

Busy fathers 219 



FAQB 

Buying the b o y's 
clothes 180 

Camp fires 61,124 

Camps help Christian 

living 28,96,124 

Carpets and boys 218 

Cerebellum and cere- 
brum 32 

Cerebro-spinal system . 32 
Characteristics of ado- 
lescence . 162, 163, 164, 165 
Characteristics of child- 
hood. ..158,159,160,161 
Character and food. .. 19 

Cheerfulness 243 

Chest, Enlarging the . . 13 

Chest, Girth of 8 

Chewing of food 17 

"Children's heads are 

hollow" 31 

Chivalry. . 201 

Choral singing 95 

Choosing a vocation 

78, 145 

Chumminess 74, 219 

Chumship, Indiscrim- 
inate 83 

Church and adoles- 
cence 27, 97, 239 

Church attendance. . . . 252 
Church, Criticizing 

the 133,229 

Church membership. . . 

113, 119, 132, 239 
Church, Play life a 
challenge to the .... 18 

Church services 264 

Churches, Seating ca- 
pacity of 252 

Churchless boys and 
boyless churches. . . . 252 



INDEX 



283 



PAGE 

Cigarets and educa- 
tion 23 

Cigarets and moral 

decline 24 

Cigaret smoking 

among students .... 23 
Cigaret smoking and 

crime 23 

Citizens in the making 84 
Civil law vs. moral 

law 105 

Civil war fought by 

boys 182 

Cleanliness of body . . 10, 27 
Cleanliness, Moral. 109, 112 
Clean speech campaign 193 

Codes of conduct 69 

Cold bathing 10 

College, Boys who go 

to 152 

College yell 216 

Companions 69, 85, 97 

Company manners. . . . 215 
Community competi- 
tion vs. community 

cooperation 244 

Competition in sports 

and games 3 

Concentration 149 

Conduct, Tendencies 

to 102 

Conscience .... 97, 103, 

106, 112, 115, 127 

Consciousness 61 

Constituent elements 

of the body 171 

Constructive imagina- 
tion 34 

Control, Habit of 103 

Control, Instinctive. . . 102 
Control, Judgment and 103 
Conversion 119, 128 



PAGE 

Cooperation, Highest 

form of. 95 

Coordination of mo- 
tion and emotion. . . 34 
Correspondence course 
in Sunday school 

teaching 240 

Cost of wrong doing. . . 182 

Courage 109 

Creation of ideals 43 

Creative powers .... 43, 154 
Crime, Time of great- 
est 119 

Cultural side of educa- 
tion 154 

Dabbling 149 

Dangers of athletics. . . 19 

Decision 4 

Decision for Christian 

living 127 

Decrease of sickness. . . 3, 8 
Defective imagination . 39 

Delinquent boys 118 

Dependence, Instinct 

of 80 

Desire for fellowship . 83, 84 
Desire, Function of . . . 106 
Digestive apparatus. . . 10 
Dirt and noise . 117, 215, 218 

Dirty stories 72 

Discipline 2, 68 

Discipline, Moral 43 

Discipline and charac- 
ter formation 42 

Discontent, Spirit of.. 147 

Discourtesy 214 

Disease and mind 12 

Disease and tobacco, . 23 

Dissipation 9 

Divorce and the home. 206 
Doing a good turn .... 94 



284 



Es[DEX 



PAGE 

Dominant emotional 

instincts 66 

Dreams 15 

Drunkards 20 

Dust hunters vs. home 

makers 218 

Ear, The 194 

Eating 15 

Eating, The art of 6, 17 

Economic waste 

through smoking ... 24 
Education, Cultural 

side of 154 

Education and cigarets 23 
Education, Progres- 
sive 12,30,77 

Education, Social 86 

Education, Value of. . . 148 
Education, Visualized . 

150, 153 

EflSciency, Instinct of . 77 

Ego period .42,69 

Emotional characteris- 
tics 63 

Emotional instincts ... 65 
Emotion-c ontrolled 

men 80 

Emotions 64,80 

Energy, Harnessing of. 4 

Energy, Moral 104 

Energy, Physical 172 

Esoteric instinct 93 

Esteem 70 

Ethical period 126 

Ethics taught through 

play 18 

Example, Power of . . . . 79 
Exit mother and enter 

father 181 

Eye, The care of the . . 4 

Eye, Wonders of the . . 194 



PAGE 

Faith 122. 127 

Family, The 110,112 

" meal. The so- 
cializing val- 
ue of 90 

pew 252,254 

" quarreling. . . . 214 

" worship 221 

Father and son. Firm 

of... 107 

Father's opportunity , . 

6, 26, 181 

Fatigue 13,18 

Fear 66 

Fear an educational 

factor 68 

Feeling. . . 29, 63, 64, 70, 127 

Feelings, Hurt 63 

Fighting.. ...70,72,78,100 
First impressions . . 124, 243 

First shave. The 179 

Food and character. . . 17 

Food, Chewing of 17 

Formation of habits . . 40 
Fraternities, Value 

of 93,94 

Freedom to decide 146 

Finger nails 10 

Fresh air 9 

Friendships 69, 85, 

124, 146, 175, 183 

Functioning 77, 127 

Fun and mischief 117 

Fun of living 15 

Function of desire. ... 106 
Function of worship. . . 133 

Gambling and betting . 113 

Gang leadership 97 

Gangs 8,68,82,85, 

97, 226, 233 
Gangs, Study of 86 



INDEX 



285 



PAGE 

Generosity 110 

Generous impulses..!" 128 

Genius 35 

Glee clubs 95 

Goal of athletics 20 

God, A boy's concep- 
tion of 79 

God and nature 124 

Go-to-Church band . . . 255 
Go- to-Church Sunday . 251 

Gregariousness 86 

Growth, Accelerat ion 

of 6 

in chest 5 

in height 5,71 

in legs ....... 7 

in weight 5 

and nutrition. 16 

and sleep 13 

Grow time 169 

Habit 242 

" control 103 

** and character . . 41 
" Formation of. 40, 486 
Habits, Mental and 

moral 40 

Harnessing energy .... 9 

Health creed 27 

Heart hunger 118 

" as a pump 173 

" strain 19 

" Weight of 7 

Hedonists 227 

Heroism 117, 127 

Hero worship 79, 126 

High School fraterni- 
ties 93 

Holyoke plan 246 

Home a school of 

morals 105 

Home a social center . . 89 



PAGE 

Home and public 

schools 144, 199 

Home life 74,87, 

205,206,220 
H o m e-making vs. 

house-keeping 89, 218 

Home, Peril of 90,205 

Home sickness 217 

Home the foundation 

of society 204 

Homeless boys 217 

Honesty 109,112,115 

Honor 112 

Hotel vs. home 90 

Hours of sleep 14 

Hours of work 14 

Hot house forcing of 

boys 25, 38 

Humanity, Obligation 

to 112 

Hurt feelings 63 

Ideals ..97,113,177 

Ideals, Creation of ... . 43 

Idealism 15 

Ignorance of badness . . 101 

Imagination 34, 35, 1 18 

Imagination, Defective 39 

Immature powers 1 

Impressionistic period. 122 

Impulse, Blind 2 

Impulses 128 

Incivility 214 

Increased girth 8 

Indiscriminate chum- 
ship 83 

Individuality 18 

Indulgent parents .... 13 
Industrialism, Sunday . 231 
IneflScient Sunday 

school teaching 227 

Injustice 71 



286 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Insanity 115 

Insanity through drink 20 
Instinct of afiFection ... 74 
Instinct of aversion to- 
ward the strange. ... 69 
Instinct of dependence 80 
Instinct of efficiency . . 77 

Instinct of fear 66 

Instinct of inner free- 
dom 76 

Instinct of positive and 

negative self feeling. 76 

Instinct of reverence . . 78 

Instinct of sex 76 

Instinct of surprise. ... 80 

Instinct of sympathy. . 77 

Instinct of wonder .... 80 
Instinct of worship .121, 254 

Instinctive control .... 102 

Instincts, Emotional . : 66 

Integrity 115 

Intellectual character- 
istics 29 

Inter-church organiza- 
tion 244 

Interpretation 

of morals 102 

Interpreters of boy- 
hood 17 

Inward rebellion 176 

Irregularity of sleep. . . 13 

Irreverence 230 

Jesus, Boyhood of ... . 6 

Judgment control 103 

Justice 11, 110 

Juvenile courts 186, 207 

Juvenile delinquency. . 

207, 237 

Kidneys 10, 13 

Kneepante 177,218 



PAGE 

Knights of King Arthur 
age 126,257 

"Know Yourself Cam- 
paign" 155 

Language the vehicle 

of thought 46 

Laziness 141 

Leadership 96, 176 

Leadership of gang. ... 97 
"League of Worshiping 

Children" 255 

Leaving school 152 

Likes and dislikes 143 

Liquor, Decrease of 

consumption of 22 

Liver 13 

Lonely age 118 

Long sermons and long 

prayers 227 

Long trouser period. . . 

177. 179 
Love a social feeling. . . 74 

Love in action 43 

Love of home 204 

Loyalty 126, 182 

Lungs 10, 13, 173 

Lying 140 

Making a living vs. 

making a life 156, 217 

Making things 140 

Manland 106 

Manners 109, 215 

Mannishness vs. man- 
liness 219 

Maxims of life 108 

Meal, The family 90 

Medulla oblongata. ... 32 

Medullary sheath 32 

Memory 43, 104, 183 

Memorizing 44, 45 



INDEX 



287 



PAGE 

Mental habits 40 

Mental photography . . 194 

Mental turmoil 134 

Mind, a picture gal- 
lery 33 

Mind, Reasoning power 

of 34 

Minister, Assistants to 

the 261 

Ministers and the boys 259 
Ministers' sermons to 

boys 263 

Mischief and fun 117 

Misfits on society. . . 84, 136 
Misunderstood boys, . 

118, 232 

"Model" boy 177 

Modern sensationalism 230 

Modern skepticism. . . . 232 

Moral characteristics. . 100 

" colorblindness.. 114 

" culture 84 

" destruction. . . . 101 
" deterioration ... 39 

" discipline 43 

" energy 104 

** instruction. Aim 

of. . 103 

** instruction for 

boys 12 to 14. 109 
** instruction for 

boys 14 to 16. 110 
" instruction for 

boys 16 to 19. 112 

" judgment 101 

" law vs. civil law 105 

** qualities 62 

** teaching. Home 
as the school 

of 105 

Morality, A growth 
from within 100 



PAGE 

Morality, A rational 

basis for 109 

Morals, Religious base 

of 103 

Morbus Sabbaticus . . . 250 
Mother and her oppo- 
sition to boy friends. 88 
Mother and uplift so- 
cieties 209 

Mother buying the 

boy's clothes 180 

Mother love 200 

Mothers' Congress. . . . 200 
Mother's opportunity. 122 

Motion pictures 231 

Mouth breathing 5, 14 

Muscle and morals. . . . 104 
Muscular virtues and 

faults 18 

Muscles, Involuntary. 11 
Music 43, 44, 95,97 

Nagging. 106,107 

Narrowmindedness. ... 96 

Nasal passages 10, 15 

Nature and God 124 

Nature and nurture . . . 170 

Nature worship 125 

Neglected boyhood. ... 84 
Need of vocational 

guidance 139 

Nervo - muscular sys- 
tem 30 

Nervous fathers 216 

Nervous system 

4, 13, 14, 30, 32, 33, 173 

Newspaper route 141 

Noise and dirt 117,215 

Number of young men 

in U. S . 39 

Nutrition 14 

Nutrition and growth . / 16 



288 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Obedience . 7 . . .t. 107 

Objective righteous- 
ness 121 

Observation, Period 

of 4,102 

Older boys. Responsi- 
bility of 113 

Open hearth 51 

Order. . 110 

Organization for boys . 245 
Organized Sunday 

school classes 245 

Oxygen 16 

Pairing tendency 85 

Parental ambition . 145, 205 
Parental authority. . . , 

39, 42, 89, 207 
Parental delinquency.. 
88, 192, 204, 207, 214, 220 

Parental respect 215 

Parents, Indulgent. ... 13 
Parents and sex in- 
struction. . .187, 190, 197 
Parents and the Sun- 
day school 228 

Parent-Teacher Asso- 
ciation 200 

Passions 64 

Patriotism 110, 111. 112 

Peace and war. . . . Ill, 112 

Pelvic organs 13 

Peril of the home. . .90, 205 

Period of doubt 42 

Period of misunder- 
standing 118 

Perseverance 110 

Personal habits 40 

Personal relationship to 

others Ill 

Personality, The boy's. 

33, 248 



PAGE 

Personality of leaders. 

104, 228, 239, 241 
Phi Alpha Pi fraternity 93 

"Phrenometer" 173 

Physical examinations . 20 

Physical laziness 38 

Physical struggle and 

prowess 9 

Physical weaknesses. . . 103 
Pictures, The appeal of 

195, 196 

Pin feather age 179 

Plato 3,6 

Play a school of ethics 18 
Play a social adjuster. 90 

Play and work 92 

Play life a challenge to 

the Church 18 

Playing store 141 

Pleasure of work 89 

Pores 10 

Power of example .... 79 
Power of observation. . 4 
Power of suggestion. . . 36 

Prayer 122,254 

Preparation for life . . 83, 90 
Principles relating to 
self, society, and hu- 
manity 108 

Progressive education. 30 
Prohibition of the sale 

of vodka 21 

Protestant Sunday 

schools 223 

Psychical elements. ... 4 
Public schools and the 

home 144 

Public schools and sex 

instruction 199 

Public schools and re- 
ligious instruction. . . 224 
Punishment 68, 71. 105 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Quacks 20 

Questionnaire 
on amusements 11 

Questionnaire on books 
and magazines 52 

Questionnaire on father 211 

Questionnaire on habit 253 

Questionnaire on how a 
minister can help a 
boy . . 260 

Questionnaire on join- 
ing the church 258 

Questionnaire 
on mother 209 

Questionnaire on sex 
instruction 187, 189 

Questionnaire on slang 47 

Questionnaire on Sun- 
day school attend- 
ance 225 

Questionnaire on vo- 
cational desire 138 

Questionnaire on why 
boys don't go to 
church 253 

Questionnaire on why 
boys go to Sunday 
school 238 

Questions, A boy's .... 

6, 14, 207 

Rapid eating 17 

Rational basis for mor- 
ality 109 

Reasoning power of 

mind 34 

Rebellion, Inward .... 177 

Recreation 1, 111, 113 

Reform schools 207 

Regulative principles.. 108 
Religion as motive 
power 117,120 



PAGE 

Religion the base of 

morals 103 

Religious awakening. . 

119, 128 
Religious characteris- 
tics 117 

Religious clarification. 118 
Religious expression. . . 

121, 122 

Religious feeling 8 

Religious instruction . . 233 
Religious instruction 

and the public schools 224 
Religious observance . . 1 18 
Religious questionings. 

101, 135 
Reproductive organs . . 7 
Respect for authority. 39 
Respect for others .... 108 
Respect jfor self. 108, 110, 113 

Responsibility 

39, 92, 113, 182 

Restlessness 13 

Reverence, Instinct of . 78 

Right thinking 41 

Room, A boy's 87 

Sabbath observance . 80, 230 

Sacrifice 108 

Saliva 14 

Savings banks in Rus- 
sia 22 

School, Boys' leaving. . 

143, 148, 152 

School yell 216 

Self centered boys .... 82 

control 144 

expression 152 

feeling. Instinct of 76 

government 106 

respect. . .108,110,113 
Selfishness 75,183 



290 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Sensitiveness to social 

relations 106 

Sensori-motor system. . 30 

Sensory centers 33 

Sensuous growth. Pe- 
riod of 101 

Sentiments 64 

Sentimentalism 75 

Service 75,76,108. 

127, 229, 244 

Servantized boys 220 

Services of worship. . . . 

249, 259, 264 

Sex instinct 76 

Sex instruction .... 25, 

26, 187, 189, 196 

Shave, The first 179 

Sickness, Decrease of. . 3, 8 
Singing, a universal 

language 95 

Singing, Church 95 

Skedaddling from Sun- 
day school 223 

Skepticism, Modern. . . 232 

Skin ..10,11,173 

Slang expressions .... 46, 47 
Sleep and growth .... 13, 14 
Sleep, Breathing dur- 
ing 13,15 

Sleep, Hours of 14 

Sleep, Irregularity of . . 13 
Smoking and beer 

drinking 23 

Smoking and economic 

waste 24 

Social center. The boy's 

room a 87 

Social characteris- 
tics 82 

Social education 86 

Social initiative 90 

Social instincts 84, 97 



PAGE 

Social organizations. . . 

94, 110, 112 
Social relationships. . . 113 
Social service. . .92, 113, 114 
Socializing value of the 

family meal 90 

Spinal cord and mar- 
row 32 

Spirit of discontent , . . 149 
Spiritualization of work 156 

Spontaneity 151 

Stages of religious ex- 
pression 122, 240 

Stemming the tide 236 

Stifled emotions 80 

Strong motor and sen- 
sor temperaments. . , 65 
Struggle for manhood . 134 
Storm and stress pe- 
riod 63, 128 

Spine 13 

Study of gangs 86 

Suggestion, Power of . . 36 

Suicide 206 

Sunday newspaper . . . 230 
Sunday school activi- 
ties 243 

Sunday school and 
adolescence. . 27, 119, 

134, 152, 223, 233 
Sunday school and big 

boys 226,236 

Sunday school and 

parents 228 

Sunday school and 

week day activities. 234 
Sunday School Ath- 
letic League 19, 242 

Sunday school Boys' 

Department 246 

Sunday school indus- 
trialism 231 



INDEX 



291 



PAGE 

Sunday school lessons . 233 
Sunday school teachers 120 
Surprise, Instinct of. . . 80 

Sweating tubes 10 

Swimming 11, 13 

Syllabus of moral in- 
struction 109 

Sympathetic system.33, 197 

Sympathy 124 

Sympathy, Instinct of . 77 

Teacher training insti- 
tute 240 

Teachers, Inefficient 

Sunday school 227 

Team work 91 

Teasing 71 

Teeth 14,15 

Temper 228 

Temperature of body. . 7, 8 
Temperance in drink . . 112 
Temperament, Weak 

and strong motor . . 64, 65 
Temperament, Weak 

and strong sensor ... 65 
Tendencies to conduct. 102 
The Church, the 
preacher, the ser- 
mon, and the boy. . . 250 
The greatest criminal 

in history 20 

The language of the 

fence 185 

The three modern 

furies 206 

The teen period 7 

Thinking right 41,176 

Thought life of a boy. . 

25, 115, 185 
Three wise monkeys of 

Japan 194 

Thrift 110.111 



PAGE 

Throat 10,14 

Tight fitting clothing. . 15 
Time of conversion. ... 119 

Time of crime 119, 186 

Time of uniting with 

the church 119 

Tobacco and disease . . 23 

Toenails 10 

Toleration toward 

others 113 

Truthfulness 109 

Unfolding of personal- 
ity 14 

Uniting with the 
Church 131,119,258 

Unselfishness 78 

Value of an education . 

148, 154 

Vertebral column 33 

Virile qualities 7 

Virtue and vice 15 

Visualized education . . 153 
Vocation, Choosing a. . 

78, 144 
Vocational characteris- 
tics . 137 

Vocational schools .... 152 
Voluntary human ac- 
tion 100 

Vulgar show bills 193 

War and peace. . . .111, 112 

Waste 13,14 

Willculture....39, 111, 113 

Will, The 139,155 

Wine drinking 21 

Wonder, Instinct of . . . 80 

Work 110,111,140,155 

Work and play 92 

Work, Hours of 14 



292 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Work. Pleasure of. .39, 157 
Work, Spiritualization 

of 156 

Worship, Family 221 

Worship, FunctioQ of. . 133 



PAGE 

Worship, Instinct of. 121, 154 
Worship and nature.. . 124 

Wrong doing 102 

W u n d t ' 8 regulative 
principles 108 



Index of Authors 



PAGE 

Addison, Joseph 243 

Alexander, John L . . . . 245 

Baden-Powell. Sir Rob- 
ert S. S 94 

Baines. E. W 23 

Beck, F. 7.91,107 

Begbie, Harold 103 

Black, Hugh 85 

Bok, Edward 38 

Bosworth, E. 1 221 

Burdette, Robert 24 

Burr, H. M 47 

Butler, Prof 104 

Carroll, H.K 252 

Chad wick. Dr. M. 

Louise 196 

Coe, George A 101 

Cook, Joseph 45 

Corsan, George H . . . . 13 

Craig, T. A 182 

Curtis, John W 153 

De Garmo, Charles. . . 108 

De Motte, John B 201 

Dennis, Doctor 23 

Dewey, John 106 

Dexter and Garlick . . . 105 

Eliot, Charles W 41 



PAGE 

Faunce, W. N 224 

Fisher, George J., M.D. 103 
Forbush, William 

Byron 7,82 

Fosbroke, Gerald E . . . 176 
Fowler, Nathaniel, Jr. . 

141, 143 
Freeman, James M. . . . 195 

Gladstone, William E. . 41 
Green, Reuben, M.D.. 14 

Hall, G. Stanley 

11, 14, 18, 46, 51, 
71, 96, 119, 196, 

205 231 

Hoben, Allan 259, 261 

Home, H. H 240 

Hubbell, George Allen . 

45, 46. 170 

James, William. . .40, 41, 84 

Johnson, G. E 83 

Johnson, Marietta L. . 149 

Kirkpatrick, E. A 30 

Kirtley, James S . . 4, 6, 

10, 17, 35, 75, 87, 121 
Kress. D. H.. M.D.... 24 



INDEX 



dOS 



PAGE 

Latimer, Hugh 220 

Lockwood, John Hor- 
ace 206 

Longfellow, Henry W. 21 

Lord, Everett W 143 

Luther, Martin 124 

McElfresh, Franklin . . 241 
McKeever, William A . 155 
McKinley, Charles E. . 

76, 248, 263 
Harden, Orison Swett. 151 
Mark, H. Thistleton . . 

30, 63, 66, 69, 74 

Markham, Edwin 156 

Mayo, Hon. John W . . 214 
Merrill, Lilburn, M. D. 74 

Mill, John Stuart 41 

Moxom, Philip A 115 

Oppenheim, James. . . . 206 

Puffer, J. Adam 86 

Raflfety, W. E 43 

Ribot, Th 66,73 

Riis, Jacob E 140 

Roarke, Prof 37 



PAGE 

Robson, Frank 101 

Rosenkrantz, Dr 84 

Rosenufif. Dr 20 

Ruskin, John 44 

St. John, E. P 78 

Scott, Collin A 114 

See, Edwin F 40 

Sheldon, D 86 

Snedden, David 154 

Starbuck, E. D.... 118, 128 

Stead, W.T 128 

Swift, Edgar J 86 

Tarkington, Booth 177 

Taylor, Charles K 19 

Tyler, J. M 7,8,9, 

33, 34, 72, 127, 128 
Tyndall, John 194 

Van Dyke, Henry 90 

Votaw, Prof 132 

Warner, Francis 14 

Weigle, Luther A ... .84, 93 

Werner, Carl 181 

Wilson, R. N., M.D... 25 
Wundt, W. M 107 



FiBST Lines of Poetby 

PAGB 

'A Cathedral, boundless as our wonder" 124 

'A creed is a rod." Hyde 136 

'As each new life is given to the world" 247 

*At night returning, every laborer sped." Goldsmith 204 

*At the terrible door of your beautiful sin." Morgan 202 

'Brother, save the boy." Raffety 234 

•Doth not the soul the body sway" 114 

'Do you know that your soul is of my soul such part" 200 

'Earth's future glory and its hopes and joys" 183 

'Flower in the crannied wall." Tennyson ... * 169 



294 INDEX 

PAGE 

"For there are moments in life when the heart is so 

full of emotion." Longfellow 63 

**Give the boy a hammer." Chicago News 140 

"Give us men." Bishop of Exeter 98 

"He was a dog, but he stayed at home." London 

S. S. Times. 208 

"How beautiful is youth! how bright it gleams." 

Longfellow 181 

"Hurry the baby as fast as you can." Waterman. . . 26 
"I am a child — oh, do not tie me up to schools." 

Breckenridge 150 

"It is good to have money" 220 

"It takes a soul." Mrs. Browning 96 

"I want a hero." Blackie 80 

"Know thyself as the Lord of the chariot" 62 

"Let me but do my work from day to day." Van 

Dyke 157 

"Life's more than breath." Baily 100 

"Man am I grown." Tennyson 223 

"Mind is the master power that moulds and makes." 

Benton 29 

"Mum always makes me mad clean through." Daly 180 

"Oh, the joy of measured strength." Sterns 3 

"Oh the years we waste and the tears we waste" .... 214 

"Onc't they was a little boy." Riley 67 

"Ram it in, jam it in." London Post 31 

"Seek to shape it outwardly" 74 

*'Sow a thought and reap a deed." Hale 41 

"There are hermit souls that live withdrawn." Foss 82 

*'There is a tide in the affairs of men." Shakespeare 108 
"There's a breathless hush in the Close tonight." 

Newbolt 91 

"The world has work for us." Allerton 137 

**To thine own self be true." Shakespeare 108 

"Two great, strong arms; a merry way." B. E. W. . 221 

"Wall Street rang and echoed with its traffic" 37 

"We teach and teach" ^ 241 

"When from the field of mimic strife" 73 

"When the fight begins within himself." Browning.. 100 

"Where have I come from." Tagore 197 

"Who builds in boys builds lastingly in truth" 28 

"You hear that boy laughing" 117 



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